‒ even to say where
they were. Food was often scarce and accommodation woefully inadequate.
Conditions only began to improve once internees were moved to more
permanent camps, mostly on the IsleofMan.
The introduction of mass internment did not deflect MI5 from its
campaign to secure the internment of prominent Communists. In July
1940, as mass internment reached its peak, it once again took up the
Kuczynski case with the Home Office: ‘We presume that Jürgen Kuczynski is included in the general internment of enemy aliens.’13 But,
despite the supposedly damaging
with British public opinion generally, for his support of the refugees. On 16
October 1940, a report had appeared in the News Chronicle criticising the
conditions in the Rushen Women’s Internment Camp on the IsleofMan,14
its source being the FGLC. The local newspaper, the IsleofMan Examiner,
soon deduced that, since George Bell was the only one of the FGLC’s list of
British patrons to have visited the camp, the blame for these allegations
must rest with him. In a blistering attack, the Examiner accused Bell of
being ‘the self-appointed champion of Nazis and
Class ‘B’. Hinze was arrested on 16 May,
police swooping on his home at 31 Boundary Road, London NW8.
Hinze was interned on the IsleofMan, being held in Central Promenade
Camp, Douglas, but surveillance did not end there. An MI5 agent, almost
certainly Claud Sykes, who visited the camp, reported:
A Communist called Hinse [sic] and the notorious Colonel Kahle (GPU chief
in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War, according to information I received
at various times) gave a lot of trouble in the camp, according to [Martin]
Sander, and everyone was relieved when they went
internment in the lead-up to war, heartily
endorsed it in May/June 1940 and voiced strong opposition to the scale
and speed of releases authorised by the Home Office from September 1940.
In the meantime, they attempted to establish a network of informers in different camps on the IsleofMan in order to extend their control over the
refugee population. All in all, MI5’s record in the internment crisis of 1940
represents one of its greatest failures and is among the less creditable
aspects of its wartime record.
Most of the political refugees were Jewish, prompting the
reflected that the headquarters of the GRA had
moved from Belle Vue to the White City, which had been built in 1904 for the
1908 London Olympics, and had opened Harringay and had sixteen other tracks
by the end of 1927.20 Two of its intended tracks –Crystal Palace, in London, and
the IsleofMan –failed to open, the NAGL having raised a petition of 43,434
signatures against the opening of the Crystal Palace track and the Tynwald (IsleofMan Parliament) having passed a betting and gaming bill prohibiting gambling
other than on existing horse race meetings. The report
enjoys at the Home Office
owing to her friendship with Mr Cooper. Though she is in every way undesirable
on account of her activities in this country, all our warnings regarding her have
been persistently disregarded.39
It must have been especially galling for MI5 that Eva Kolmer, who had
already been permitted to visit Seaton Camp at the beginning of 1940 in
her capacity as a refugee official, was granted leave to visit the IsleofMan
internment camps at the end of the year. All that the Security Service could
do was to step up surveillance of her movements there.40
Edinburgh with the enthusiastic support of Max Born. In July
1939, he applied for British naturalisation, but war broke out before his
application could be considered.
By then Fuchs had been recognised as a theoretical physicist of great
potential; he had also become an ‘enemy alien’. Appearing before an internment tribunal on 2 November 1939, Fuchs was placed in category ‘C’ and
exempted from internment. However, on 12 May 1940 he was arrested as
part of the internment of aliens in protected areas (a prelude to mass internment) and held on the IsleofMan before being
The search for a place vision after the ‘troubles’
William J. V. Neill and Geraint Ellis
’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research
17:4 (1993), pp. 595–609.
27 Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland), Regional Physical
Development Strategy for Northern Ireland (Belfast: DoENI, 1975).
28 Ibid., p. 32.
29 Ibid., pp. 25–6.
30 This includes the administrations covering the United Kingdom, the
Republic of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Jersey, Guernsey and
31 R. Kearney, ‘Ireland and Britain: towards a Council of the Isles’, in R. Savage
(ed.), Ireland in the New Century (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003),
political insight’. However, he also noted that Hiller was ‘a fervent
opponent of Communism and very loyally disposed towards this country’.43
It is also evident that Sykes interrogated Hiller during a visit to the IsleofMan in December 1940; Hiller’s ‘personal file’ contains a letter addressed
to ‘my dear Mr. Sykes’, in which he raged against Communist subterfuge
and malpractice.44 Sykes almost certainly recommended Hiller’s release
from internment. He was freed in January 1941 and his earliest reports
followed days later.
Few, if any, of those who turned informer were
divert company funds into their own private bank
accounts in the IsleofMan. In Re Contract Packaging Ltd (HC, 16 January
1992 (Flood J.)), the directors were not prosecuted when they siphoned off in
excess of £384,000 of company money for their personal use and defrauded
the Revenue Commissioners. In Re Kelly’s Carpetdrome Ltd (HC, 1 July 1983
(Costello J.)), the directors were not prosecuted when they defrauded the
Revenue Commissioners of €2 million. In an effort to withhold evidence from
the liquidator, they burned down the business premises which stored company