The prevailing historiographies of Jewish life in England suggest that religious
representations of the Jews in the early modern period were confined to the
margins and fringes of society by the desacralization of English life. Such
representations are mostly neglected in the scholarly literature for the latter
half of the long eighteenth century, and English Methodist texts in particular
have received little attention. This article addresses these lacunae by
examining the discourse of Adam Clarke (1760/2–1832), an erudite Bible scholar,
theologian, preacher and author and a prominent, respected, Methodist scholar.
Significantly, the more overt demonological representations were either absent
from Clarke‘s discourse, or only appeared on a few occasions, and were vague as
to who or what was signified. However, Clarke portrayed biblical Jews as
perfidious, cruel, murderous, an accursed seed, of an accursed breed and
radically and totally evil. He also commented on contemporary Jews (and
Catholics), maintaining that they were foolish, proud, uncharitable, intolerant
and blasphemous. He argued that in their eternal, wretched, dispersed condition,
the Jews demonstrated the veracity of biblical prophecy, and served an essential
purpose as living monuments to the truth of Christianity.
This article presents a forgotten manuscript of a personal account of one of the
first Jewish settlers who departed from Romania to Palestine in 1882 and helped
found the colony of Samarin, which was later taken over by Baron de Rothschild
and renamed Zichron Yaakov. Friedrich Horn, a schoolmaster with Austrian
nationality who had settled in Romania fifteen years before his departure to
Palestine, gave the manuscript of his unfinished work Nationaltraum der Juden to
Moses Gaster. Gaster kept it among his collection of manuscripts. He considered
it a diary rather than as Horn obviously had in mind, a contribution to
historiography intended to be published. The text provides significant evidence
concerning the underappreciated role of Jews from Romania in the historiography
Hartmann Schedel’s Liber Chronicarum (1493), better known as the Nuremberg Chronicle, pictures and describes world civilisations and illustrious individuals from Creation to 1493. Although its sources and circumstances of production have been extensively explored, the cultural significance of its many woodcut images has received far less attention. This preliminary study highlights relationships between images, audience and the humanist agenda of Schedel and his milieu by examining selected representations of cultural outsiders with reference to external illustrated genres that demonstrated the centrality of Others in German Christian culture. I argue that the Chronicle’s images of ‘foreign bodies’ harnessed their audience’s established fascination with monsters, wonders, witchcraft, Jews and the Ottoman Turks to advance the German humanist goal of elevating the position of Germania on the world historical stage and in so doing, contributed to the emerging idea of a German national identity.
Catholicism and Nonconformity in Nineteenth-Century ‘Jewish Conversion’ Novels
This article examines English Evangelical novels focused on the conversion of Jewish characters, published from the 1820s to the 1850s. It concentrates particularly on the way these novels emphasised the importance of the Church of England in constructing national and religious identity, and used Jewish conversion as a way to critique Catholicism and Nonconformity. Jewish worship, rabbinic authority and Talmudic devotion were linked to Roman Catholic attitudes towards priesthood and tradition, while Jews were also portrayed as victims of a persecuting Roman Church. Nonconformity was criticised for disordered worship and confusing Jews with its attacks on respectable Anglicanism. As a national religion, novelists therefore imagined that Jews would be saved by a national church, and often linked this to concepts of a national restoration to Palestine. This article develops and complicates understandings of Evangelical views of Jews in the nineteenth century, and their links to ‘writing the nation’ in popular literature.
Henry Edward Manning (1808–92) was involved in some of the most pressing social issues of his time, from the defence of workers and trade unionism to finding a solution for the dock strike and the education of the poor. English Catholic social conscience, as a whole and with some singular exceptions, was somewhat slow in following the leadership of the cardinal in some of these matters. This article studies a barely known aspect of Manning’s social activity: his involvement in the British response to the Russian pogroms of 1881–82 and in other contemporary Jewish issues.