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Timothy Longman

stumbled into genocide, as the strategy of asserting power by exterminating the Tutsi developed even as it was being implemented. The discussion carries echoes of the debate between intentionalists and structuralists in Holocaust studies, a disagreement over whether the genocide of Jews was the direct result of a master plan or grew out of the logic and structures of the Nazi state ( Mason, 1981 : 21–40; Browning, 2004 ). I discussed this issue with Des Forges shortly before her death, and she was inclined to agree with Guichaoua’s perspective, though in practice it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

Threatens Lives , 12 July , HRW : Brussels , www.hrw.org/news/2017/07/12/eu-draft-code-sea-rescues-threatens-lives (accessed 7 October 2020 ). Krekó , P. ( 2011 ), ‘ Jobbik Needs Jews to Run the World ’, Political Capital Institute : Budapest , 15

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

and the Congo, or the British and Mau Mau, or the French in Algeria. As the Americans joined the fray post World War II (after Nazi Germany’s attempt to exterminate the Jews, and after the US dropped two atomic bombs on civilians without warning), we can fast-forward to the use of nerve agents in Vietnam, the mass bombing of civilians in Cambodia, the giving of a green light to the government in East Pakistan to commit genocide in what is now Bangladesh or the political support the US gave to Pinochet and the Khmer Rouge. We can go back to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps
,
Lasse Heerten
,
Arua Oko Omaka
,
Kevin O'Sullivan
, and
Bertrand Taithe

that manner. Yet Biafra also helped establishing the Holocaust as a genocide, singled out from Nazi crimes more generally: genocidal in nature, targeting minority groups and primarily the Jews. These references are thus interesting and insightful not only to get a better grasp of the Nigerian civil war, but they can also help us better understand the mechanics of Holocaust memory [ Heerten, 2017 , 280–4; Smith, 2014 ; Heerten and Moses, 2014 ]. Moreover

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The genesis of Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control towards the Palestinian minority

Widely regarded as expert in techniques of surveillance and political control, Israel has been successful in controlling a native population for a long time. Despite tremendous challenges, it has maintained a tight grip over a large Palestinian population in the territories it occupied in the 1967 war. Moreover, it has effectively contained the Palestinian minority inside its 1948 borders. This book discusses the foundation of an Israeli discourse about the Palestinian minority, which Israeli leaders called birour or clarification, and the circumstances of its emergence and crystallization. It talks about the policy of constructing the Palestinians both as non-Jews and as an assortment of insular minorities. The fate of this minority was not only an Israeli internal affair but also an issue of concern to the international community. An analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks, and the role of state power in categorizing the Palestinians, follows. The book also analyses the ways state control and surveillance were implemented at the level of the locality. The book highlights the way state educational policy not just fostered the segmentation described earlier but promoted among students and educators. It then takes up the question of political rights and their meaning under the rule of Military Government. It concludes with personal reflections on the thousands of minutes, protocols, reports, plans and personal messages.

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Living in the shadow
Ronit Lentin

1 Introduction: living in the shadow All biographies like all autobiographies like all narratives tell one story in place of another story. (Hélène Cixous 1997: 178) Each one of us, Israelis and Jews, has a shadow, the shadow of the 1948 Palestinian refugees. (Uri Davis 1994: 190) Prologue: May 2008 - exile and last journey? Feelings of doom have accompanied the preparations for my visit to observe the 60th anniversary of the Nakba and Israeli independence. It feels like my last chance to witness the contradictory rituals of the Israelis celebrating their

in Co-memory and melancholia
Ronit Lentin

demilitarisation of Israeli society and a two-state solution, to the Palestinian right of return and a one-state solution, and therefore the demise of Israel as a Jewish state. It can be theorised in terms of Tilly’s distinguishing features of social movements, which, he argues, lie ‘in sustained challenges to authorities and responses by those authorities, during which at least one challenger publicly displays WUNC: worthiness, unity, numbers and commitment’ (Tilly 1999: 260). The emphasis on WUNC in much of the self-perception of Israeli Jews engaged in co-memorating the Nakba

in Co-memory and melancholia
Ronit Lentin

historiography of this contested term which I deal with in Chapter 6. In this chapter I discuss the construction of the reawakening of the Israeli Jewish memory of the Nakba as a ‘road to Damascus’ tale told by post- and antiZionist Israeli Jews – the realisation that the story of the birth of the state was not a story of liberation and redemption but involved the colonisation and 88 Co-memory and melancholia subjugation of another people. For Benvenisti and for me, as for many others, that moment of realisation dates back to the wake of the 1967 war. More commonly, however

in Co-memory and melancholia
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

doubt on the naturalness of the official order in which the Palestinians are presented as a mosaic of insular minorities. The aim of this chapter is to deconstruct this order and unveil the role that state power has played, through deliberate planning and direct action, in engineering a social order where ‘ethnic’ categories have been presented as the central or the only form of identification for Palestinians. This constructed order is premised on two representations of the Palestinians: as non-Jews and as a collection of minorities. This balkanized group structure

in Thorough surveillance
Ronit Lentin

2 Memory sites, postmemory, co-memory Why do some people have the power to remember, while others are asked to forget? ... No ethical person would admonish Jews to forget the Holocaust ... yet in dialogue with Israelis ... Palestinians are repeatedly admonished to forget the past ... ironically Palestinians live the consequences of the past every day – whether as exiles from their homeland, or as members of an oppressed minority within Israel. (Bishara 2007) Introduction In ‘Categorial murder, or, how to remember the Holocaust’, Bauman (2004a) argues that

in Co-memory and melancholia