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Ayla Göl

University Press, 2001, p. 13. 32 Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. II – Reform, Revolution and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808– 1975, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 3. 33 The Ottoman Empire was a multi-­national empire but the usage of ‘millet’ (nation) is totally different from the modern usage. The definition of nation was based on religion in its millet system. Thus, the separation was between Muslims (Turks, Kurds, Laz, Alevis), Christians (Armenians, Greeks) and Jews in the empire. The

in Turkey facing east
Ayla Göl

their religion in the millet System – i.e. Muslim subjects and non-­Muslim subjects (Christians and Jews) of the empire. The replacement of the ‘umma’ identity by a secular ‘national’ identity was seen as a consequence of the transformation to modernity. First, the majority of Muslim Anatolian people discovered their Turkishness. Second, due 40 Turkey facing east to the need to construct a new collective identity, they would have gone through a process of differentiating themselves from the others, i.e. the Greeks and the Armenians, and by claiming national self

in Turkey facing east
Abstract only
Contextualising reconciliation
Lorena De Vita

the vanquished, while the State of Israel did not even exist when Hitler’s Germany attempted to exterminate the Jews. The uniqueness and significance of the gesture made by the FRG in the early 1950s and the ever-growing cooperation between the two countries virtually in all fields – commerce, security, research, education – fostered the common perception that German–Israeli relations have historically been based on ‘strong moral foundations’, as Shimon Peres put it. 2 Academics, public intellectuals and politicians have often invoked the image of the ‘moral

in Israelpolitik
Umberto Tulli

four”, as the Western press named it, led to the dissidents being sentenced to labour camps and thrust Soviet repression into public awareness in the West. 89 Another major source of what came to be known as Soviet dissent was the plight of Soviet Jews. After fifty years of Soviet assimilationism, most Soviet Jews did not represent a problem for Soviet authorities. They were the “Jews of silence”, as Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel wrote, who had no interest in affirming their identity in the public sphere, although they were aware of their origins. 90 During the 1960s

in A precarious equilibrium
Jonathan J. Pierce
and
Katherine C. Hicks

succeeded by Vice-President Harry S. Truman, who maintained Roosevelt’s policies of dual consultation and allowed the US Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (NEA) to administer policy on Palestine (US Department of State 1968: 707). During the summer of 1945, the war in Europe came to an end and the magnitude of the Holocaust emerged for the American public (Clifford 1978 ). The Holocaust left hundreds of thousands of displaced persons (DPs), many of them Jews, living in former concentration and refugee camps across Europe (Segev 1993 ). President

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Abstract only
Lorena De Vita

–53 supported a different East German stance towards Israel – one imbued with awareness of how significant the racial persecution of the Jews had been within the Nazi political project, and one animated by the conviction that the ‘new’ socialist German state should engage with the Jewish state, and pay restitutions to the Jewish survivors of Nazi persecution, wherever they may live. Instead, the East German official discourse on the past removed any notion of East German historical responsibility towards the Jews, and failed to identify, in the atrocities inflicted on the

in Israelpolitik
Abstract only
Germany in American post-war International Relations
Felix Rösch

were also affected by anti-Semitism in the US. 28 After 1933, for example, hotels restricted access for Jews, while landlords advertised their apartments with the addition ‘no Jews’. 29 Even at universities, some faculty members would openly voice their convictions and many universities like Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Princeton and Yale used quota systems to minimise the intake of Jewish students and scholars. 30 In Morgenthau’s papers at the Library of Congress, numerous letters with anti-Semitic content are preserved. At one point, he even

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
A comparison between the Dutch Red Cross 1940–1945, and the Dutch East Indies Red Cross, 1942–1950
Leo van Bergen

-Socialistische Beweging (Nationalist Socialist Movement) – on the grounds that Piek was not very popular among Party members. 12 And then there are earlier activities during the war. The NRK not only lauded Franco as a symbol of humanitarianism and applauded the activities of the Nazified German Red Cross. 13 It had also excluded Jews from its organisation, and in 1941 assisted in carrying out the so-called Anti-Jewish Blood Transfusion Measure: a policy of not transfusing Jewish blood into Aryan bodies. Jews, or those defined as such by Nazi regulations, were only permitted to

in The Red Cross Movement
Abstract only
German–Israeli relations between past and future
Lorena De Vita

existed, also testifies to just how malleable the concept of a rigid Cold War system was, in either Germany. It emphasises how issues that originally had little to do with the Cold War, such as post-war German–Israeli relations sparked by the Israeli request to receive compensation for Nazi crimes against the Jews, could be cast as crucially interwoven with it. 8 In the GDR, Cold War constraints crucially shaped Israelpolitik concerns. In the early 1950s, the huge amount of reparations that the Soviet Union took from East Germany meant that the GDR would

in Israelpolitik
Abstract only
Quiet diplomacy, SALT II and the invasion of Afghanistan, 1979–1980
Umberto Tulli

convictions had been commuted to less severe measures, as in the case of Maria Slepak, Aleksandr Zinoviev and Eduard Kuznetsov. 5 In August, the NSC confirmed this trend and predicted that the Soviets were ready for “a few more cautious conciliatory gestures”. Figures were encouraging; by the end of July, no more dissidents had been arrested, and the number of Jews who were allowed to leave the Soviet Union was constantly growing. To the NSC, “the Soviets may now feel they are in a better position to make a few more public gestures to underline their compliance with the

in A precarious equilibrium