Cleland (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012),
49 Mandeville, Modest Defence, p. 92 (my emphasis).
50 Samuel Johnson’s definition in his Dictionary, quoted in Cleland,
Coxcomb, p. 23.
51 Cleland, Coxcomb, p. 47.
52 See Greene, ‘Arbitrary Tastes and Commonplace Pleasures’,
53 Harvey, Reading Sex, p. 9.
54 For two (divergent) readings of materialism and mechanism, see
L. Braudy, ‘Fanny Hill and Materialism’, Eighteenth-Century Studies,
4 (1970), 21–40, and E. Kubek, ‘The Man Machine: Horror and the
Phallus in Memoirs of a Woman of
Westcott (1848–1925) in England, who had noted in 1885 how it was beyond dispute that ‘a preponderant rate of suicide, and a high rate of madness exist in countries the farthest advanced in our modern ideas of civilization.’
In the German-speaking world, Alexander von Oettingen argued that materialism of modern civilisation made people weary of life, and his pupil in moral statistical research, Adolph Wagner, argued that Protestantism as a more ‘modern’ form of Christianity produced more suicides
Indeed, he was open about his intent to dramatise the ‘problems of an increasing materialism’ but also to reflect how the ‘manners and mores’ of his twenty-one million television viewers were changing in response to their viewing. 87 What Newman's view, unsurprisingly for a television enthusiast, did not acknowledge was the way in which viewing his product might change the dynamics within the home and alter the experience of everyday domesticity. The huge growth in television viewing in the late 1950s meant that the location of much leisure was shifting from outside
Rebecca Anne Barr, Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon and Sophie Vasset
-products of modernity were closely related to the concept of
‘valuable abundance’.12 Literary representations of dirt, detritus
and degenerated surplus were partly negotiations of questions of
value, echoing contemporary philosophical and theological debates
about knowledge and materialism. In a similar fashion, Peter
Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Smith’s Between Two Stools: Scatology and its Representations
in English Literature, Chaucer to Swift amplifies Gee’s argument
that waste and impure matter are key imaginative resources of the
Workplace and suburban neurosis in the interwar period
improvements, focusing on the home as evidence of both social advancement and burgeoning consumerism. 56 This increased materialism helped to blur class boundaries, but such social instability also contributed to a reluctance to make visible any perceived shortcomings. Thus, many of the housewives on the new estates were reluctant to relieve their own unhappiness by approaching neighbours, who in most cases were in very similar situations of isolation themselves, because they feared exposing their own homes to scrutiny in case they did not come up to scratch, both in terms
secretary explained to Brenier in a letter the ‘quasi-contradiction’
that his scientific views were opposed, but his style applauded. One
passage, however, in which the doctrine of materialism was expressed,
needed to be cut: ‘It is the sacrifice of a dozen lines of which the suppression may thwart you, but which will one day be pleasant, and
perhaps advantageous.’92 Brenier understood the message, commenting
in a published response to the report, that ‘such a discussion would lead
us to the controversial question of spiritualism and materialism, and it
is perhaps not the
Expertise, authority and the making of medical dominion
Fichte’s philosophy accorded with Laycock’s theological materialism and
social activism and in his essay Laycock sought to apply these ideals to the
practice of medicine. According to Laycock, the breadth of their responsibilities and their ‘intimate relation to mental philosophy’ meant that medical
practitioners embodied many of the elements of ‘that learned culture which
leads men “to the attainable portion of the Divine Idea”‘.3 ‘No class of men’,
he alleged, ‘not even the clerical order – has exerted itself more disinterestedly and benevolently for the
How Chinese medicine became efficacious only for chronic conditions
Eric I. Karchmer
classes. Although most of my interviewees complained about the prejudicial attitudes of bureaucrats toward Chinese medicine during this period, they were generally appreciative of the opportunities
to study western medicine and Marxism. Li Zhenhua of Henan studied dialectical materialism on his own and told me, “It was the key to understanding
the Inner Canon.”64 During this period, doctors of Chinese medicine did not
work in hospitals but they were encouraged to form “union clinics” (联合诊
所), creating small group practices with usually fewer than a dozen doctors.
J. Truslow Adams, The Epic of America (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1931), pp. 415–16.
S. Lewis, Babbitt (Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1922). The term ‘Babbittry’ became popular in America as a descriptor of narrow-minded materialism.
Politeness, sociability and the culture of medico-gentility
. Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness: Moral Discourse and
Cultural Politics in Early Eighteenth-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1994), p. 10.
57 J. W. Yolton, Thinking Matter: Materialism in Eighteenth-Century Britain
(Oxford, Blackwell, 1983); A. C. Vila, Enlightenment and Pathology: Sensibility in
the Literature and Medicine of Early Modern France (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1998); G. J. Barker-Benfield, The Culture of Sensibility: Sex
and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Chicago: Chicago University Press