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Burying the victims of Europe’s border in a Tunisian coastal town
Valentina Zagaria

The Mediterranean Sea has recently become the deadliest of borders for illegalised travellers. The victims of the European Union’s liquid border are also found near North African shores. The question of how and where to bury these unknown persons has recently come to the fore in Zarzis, a coastal town in south-east Tunisia. Everyone involved in these burials – the coastguards, doctors, Red Crescent volunteers, municipality employees – agree that what they are doing is ‘wrong’. It is neither dignified nor respectful to the dead, as the land used as a cemetery is an old waste dump, and customary attitudes towards the dead are difficult to realise. This article will first trace how this situation developed, despite the psychological discomfort of all those affected. It will then explore how the work of care and dignity emerges within this institutional chain, and what this may tell us about what constitutes the concept of the human.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

Roger Forshaw

and foreign rule. The administration that Psamtek put in place relied on the established elite, for both central and local control, which would have been particularly important in more distant regions such as the Thebaid. Hereditary claims to office were still important as they had been in previous periods. Later in the Dynasty there were marked changes in organisational structures to better control state finances and to reform the taxation system. With the expansion of trade, into the western Mediterranean and beyond, customs duties were increasingly being levied

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Rick Peterson

practices, particularly farming, sedentism and the use of pottery, can be seen to have spread into western Europe by two routes. These are associated with the Linear Pottery Culture (Linearbandkeramic [LBK]) identified in Central Europe (see e.g. the reviews by Gronenborn 2007; Gronenborn and Dolukhanov 2015; Hofmann 2015); and with the Cardial Impressed Ware complex present along the western Mediterranean region (Guilaine 2015; Guilaine and Manen 2007). The earliest cave burials in western Europe occurred around the Mediterranean. It was not until the fourth millennium

in Neolithic cave burials
Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder

of the Roman Mithras cult – mithraea – in Rome and Ostia. In 1947, while Vermaseren was still in Rome, Cumont died, and his pupil was regarded as the rightful person to succeed Cumont in continuing the studies of ancient ‘oriental’ religion in the Mediterranean (Roos, 1950–51).7 With the more or less simultaneous appointment of Van Essen and rise of Vermaseren in 1947, the Netherlands Institute in Rome suddenly increased its archaeological standing and potential. Meanwhile, diplomatic ties between Italy and The Netherlands were strengthened in a general climate of

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The permeable clusters of Hanna Rydh
Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

difference between domestic and mortuary ceramics. Hanna extended this proposition not only to China ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 162 03/12/2019 08:56 When the modern was too new163 but also to Scandinavian Neolithic and other areas, for example the Mediterranean regions and further east. She also reached the conclusion that the ornamentation of mortuary pottery had a dual symbolic meaning: life and death. These may seem incompatible, and to explore that alleged contradiction Hanna wrote this new article, turning to ‘the ethnographical sphere’ (Rydh, 1931: 69

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Nekau II and Psamtek II
Roger Forshaw

they had reached the eastern frontier of Egypt. However, Nebuchadnezzar’s domination over these newly conquered territories was not assured as long as Egypt remained independent, and so Nebuchadnezzar decided to launch an attack on Egypt itself. He took the coastal route along the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, reaching Tell el-Kedua, the ‘Migdol’ fortress in the eastern Delta, where the Egyptian army was drawn up and waiting. According to the Babylonian Chronicle,22 in the ensuing battle, both sides suffered severe losses, causing Nebuchadnezzar to withdraw back to

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Foreign relations and internal reforms
Roger Forshaw

suggest that this could well have been a full invasion rather than just a series of skirmishes, although the extent of the incursion could well have been exaggerated. The level of the threat can be identified by examining the geographical boundaries of the invading forces described on the stelae, ‘who are in the Oxyrhynchite nome northward to the Mediterranean Sea’,3 suggesting that the western forces had penetrated Egypt from the Faiyum northwards to the Mediterranean coast. Two different groups are listed as forming part of the invasion group, the Tjehenu and the Ma

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Don Brothwell

certainly more interested in the mixing of these earlier populations, and this has been a recurring question in various studies subsequently. Strouhal (1968), for instance, considered the question of population mixing and viewed the X group people of Wadi Qitna to be a mixed group, but mainly black Africans. Without far more population studies, the people extending along the Nile might be thought of as purely North African and Mediterranean 230 understanding egyptian mummies in appearance. In fact, the degree of homogeneity and the origins of the genes of these

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Abstract only
Artefacts and disciplinary formation
Samuel J.M.M. Alberti

lack of other Mediterranean material was striking. Shortly after the Great War, Tattersall as director reassessed the remit of the Museum in conjunction with the city’s other galleries. He wrote to the Museum Committee: I would . . . recommend that the Museum Committee define as far as may seem desirable the scope of its activities and its policy for future developments. . . . For instance there are certain branches of Museum work which are not, up to the present, dealt with in any Manchester Institution but which must, sooner or later, be included in one or the

in Nature and culture