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Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

John Chircop

8 Quarantine, sanitisation, colonialism and the construction of the ‘contagious Arab’ in the Mediterranean, 1830s–1900 John Chircop Introduction This chapter seeks to investigate quarantines – their set-up and sanitisation procedures – much as others have discussed other medical/hygienist institutions, in terms of their links with contemporary structures of power, mainly in connection with Western European colonial expansion in the southern and eastern littoral of the Mediterranean during the nineteenth century. As the growing volume of literature on the

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power
John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez

Introduction Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez Histories and memories of quarantine – the well-known collective practice of defence against epidemic disease that acquired global reach in modern times – still lead back to the Mediterranean, the region which gave birth to this institution in fourteenth-century Italian city-states and embedded its evolution up until our present days. Sometimes it is the word itself, derived from the Venetian dialect quaranta giorni (forty days) and appropriated

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain
Lisa Rosner

even ‘empire’. Instead, it is most probable that they would have referred to the professional ethics that required them to stay with their patients and with their ship. This chapter will further argue that naval experience in the Mediterranean was crucial to the formation of this professional identity, particularly with respect to quarantine regulations. Young British medical officers during the first decades of the nineteenth century acquired their first experience of quarantine and contagious diseases through the Mediterranean ports of Gibraltar and Malta. This

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Malika Ezzahidi

4 Quarantine in Ceuta and Malta in the travel writings of the late eighteenthcentury Moroccan ambassador Ibn Uthmân Al-Meknassî Malika Ezzahidi Introduction Interest in public health on the southern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea began to decline by the end of what is considered as the golden age of medieval Islamic medicine between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries. Before this occurred, hospitals (bîmâristâns) had played a central role in the treatment of the sick in major Islamic cities.1 In the case of Morocco, for example, Marrakech and Fez

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Costas Tsiamis,, Eleni Thalassinou, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou and Angelos Hatzakis

This chapter seeks to present a case study of public health in a colonial context by focusing on the organisation of lazarettos in the British Protectorate of the Ionian Islands (1815–64). The British inherited these quarantine structures from the Venetians and, nothwithstanding their anticontagionist discourse, consolidated all quarantine facilities which they found. Quarantine was important not only for colonial rule on the Islands but also in terms of British seaborne power in the Mediterranean. By focusing on quarantine in the Ionian Islands we can come to

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Quim Bonastra

the main infectious diseases (cholera, plague, yellow fever). Progress, represented at this time by steam-powered navigation, was hampered by the lengthy quarantine procedures imposed on vessels across the Mediterranean. In 1841, England decided to reduce the period of quarantine to fourteen days, to be counted from the moment the ship departed.9 In practice, this meant that on the British coast quarantine against plague disappeared in the case of ships on which no deaths had occurred during the voyage. Austria and some Slavic countries followed the British example

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Dominique Bon

2 Cholera epidemics, local politics and nationalism in the province of Nice during the first half of the nineteenth century Dominique Bon Introduction Over most of the nineteenth century, the health policy of the Kingdom of Sardinia underwent substantial change due to several factors. The threat of new ‘exotic’ epidemics – yellow fever and especially Asiatic cholera – cast doubts on a quarantine protection system designed, as Daniel Panzac showed for European Mediterranean countries at large, for the prevention of bubonic plague.1 Besides, following the liberal

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
The sanitary control of Muslim pilgrims from the Balkans, 1830–1914
Christian Promitzer

from the port of Alexandria throughout the Mediterranean. Within weeks, the whole of Europe was infected. An ISC – the third after those held in Paris in 1851 and 1859 – was convened in Constantinople the following year. During this international conference, the representatives of the main European powers asked the Ottoman Porte and Egypt to implement severe measures of control and quarantine upon the Muslim pilgrims coming from and going through their territories.2 The first time that cholera made its way from India and modern-day Iraq to Mecca had been in 1831

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
The case of Nicasio Landa
Jon Arrizabalaga and Juan Carlos García-Reyes

Pedro Felipe Monlau (1808–71) when he had defended – as Spanish delegate to the first ISC in Paris in 1851, focused on maritime quarantines in the Mediterranean48 – the ‘healthy medical doctrines in a time when they were succumbing everywhere’. And he foresaw the day was soon to come when, once this question was definitely cleared up, public opinion would acknowledge that ‘Spanish physicians’ had been the ‘wisest, most prudent, and most discerning’ for not having been blinded by the dangers facing their country, by the ‘love for money’ and ‘thirst for honours and

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914