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Elisabeth van Houts

the mercenaries may have begun to take advantage of the endemic internal strife by claiming lordships for themselves, as in Aversa, with the intention of remaining in Italy. The fertility of Campania, the area on the Mediterranean coast around Naples, with its vineyards, fruit trees, springs and plains, was an important aspect of the Normans’ wish to settle permanently. 10 The settlement of Normans

in The Normans in Europe

This book presents histories and chronicles written by the Normans themselves, or written by those whom they conquered, or written by contemporaries elsewhere in Europe who observed their actions from afar. It covers the process of assimilation and amalgamation between Scandinavians and Franks and the emergence of Normandy. The swift association of the Scandinavian counts of Rouen with their Frankish noble neighbours is indicative of their wish to settle and root in western France. The book illustrates the internal organisation of the principality with a variety of source material from chronicles, miracle stories and charters. The Normans had a turbulent relationship with the English kingdom. This country had been regularly attacked by vikings, who had settled in the east in an area known as the Danelaw. The book then presents material from the main chronicle sources for the history of the Norman invasion and settlement, supplemented with some poetry. It explains Normans' careers particularly well in Italy, and to a lesser extent in Byzantium, Spain and the Holy Land. From Normandy they set out later to conquer southern Italy and the greater part of Britain and some established themselves elsewhere in Europe. The book concerns the debate about to what extent the Norman expansion into the Mediterranean was part of an exclusively Norman experience.

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C. E. Beneš

output—sadly undervalues its contributions, not only to the civic historiography of late medieval Italy but also to a broader understanding of Jacopo's oeuvre. Read carefully, Jacopo's Chronicle is an invaluable resource for the urban history of medieval Italy, literary and historiographical practices within that milieu, ecclesiastical and political history, and the history of the later medieval Mediterranean. Italian cities and their

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
C. E. Beneš

. 47 28 May 1294: Laiazzo (now Yumurtalık, Turkey) was a key port city of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia in the northeastern Mediterranean. 48 1 Maccabees 3.18–22, slightly abridged, narrating the Maccabean Revolt against the Persian/Seleucid empire in 167–160 bc . As Bertini Guidetti ( CCG

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
C. E. Beneš

(part 11.11 n. 100, above), while Santo Stefano was a dependency of the abbey of Bobbio. San Fruttuoso di Capodimonte is a Benedictine foundation patronised by the Doria family near Portofino: part 11.19 n. 209. The ‘abbot of Tino’ was the abbot of San Venerio on Tino, an island off the Mediterranean coast near La Spezia: see part 11.17, n. 171. On the religious orders in Genoa, see CMG , chap. 13 (Polonio

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
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Graham A. Loud

Count Roger II of Sicily was crowned as the first king of the new kingdom of Sicily in Palermo cathedral on Christmas Day 1130. The consequences of that action were profound. The unification of the island of Sicily with the southern Italian mainland in the years after 1127 altered the balance of power in the Mediterranean and had a major impact on the power politics of Europe in

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily
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Gervase Rosser

caps. Some of these products were traded over long distances: russet cloth from Colchester found buyers in the towns of the Baltic and the Mediterranean. To follow such developments, the historian must consult the records of customs officials at the sea-ports, and the correspondence of agents working on behalf of international merchant companies [ 35 ], [ 36 ]. Newly emergent cloth towns in the West

in Towns in medieval England
Author: Graham A. Loud

The Norman kingdom of Sicily is one of the most fascinating and unusual areas of interest within the discipline of medieval history. The unification of the island of Sicily with the southern Italian mainland in the years after 1127 altered the balance of power in the Mediterranean and had a major impact on the power politics of Europe in the central Middle Ages. Count Roger II of Sicily was crowned as the first king of the new kingdom of Sicily in Palermo cathedral on Christmas Day 1130. Two principal narrative texts, the 'History of King Roger' of Abbot Alexander of Telese and the Chronicle of Falco of Benevento, reveal diametrically opposing views of King Roger and his state-building. Alexander of Telese suggested that Roger deliberately cultivated an image of restraint and remoteness that he might be feared by evildoers, and the chronicle attributed to Archbishop Romuald of Salerno said that he was more feared than loved by his subjects. If the German sources show the expedition of 1137 from the viewpoint of the invaders, the Montecassino chronicle depicts it from that of the recipients, trying to safeguard their own interests in the face of conflicting pressures on them. The 'Catalogue of the Barons' is a source of great importance for the study of the kingdom of Sicily in the mid-twelfth century, both for the military system and for the structure of landholding in the mainland provinces, but it is a problematic text.

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John Edwards

faced both departed and returned converts, and two examples of such poets’ work are included here. Meanwhile, as Jews and converts found themselves wandering around Europe, and in particular the Mediterranean, the rabbis outside the Iberian peninsula were faced with the problem of deciding whether those who avowed their intention of returning to Judaism could be treated as Jews

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

to recover the Golden Fleece in Colchis could be symbolically linked to the recovery of Christian lands in the Eastern Mediterranean. 6 De la Marche certainly emphasises the seriousness of crusading intent (taking some trouble to explain the meaning of his elephant). But his conceit of pondering over the extravagance on display suggests that there was room even

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530