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Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

varieties of places of origin, and the distances involved, are just two of the remarkable aspects highlighted by this study. Some Scots may only have moved a few miles across the border, but other immigrants to England had clearly travelled many hundreds of miles, from the Mediterranean, the furthest reaches of the Baltic or the far north of Scandinavia. The fact that people arrived from such a wide range of places shows not only the attractiveness of England to people on the move, but also the resulting diversity of its population. The French Of all the places from

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Lester K. Little

from countryside to the city, but migration from outside Bolognese territory into its countryside, in order to keep the city itself alive. The attractive pull of the cities reached well up into the mountains, so that the human as well as topographical connections that tied the mountains, the plateaus, and the plain need to be considered. Those connections, as well as the differences, were among the salient points in the magisterial work of Fernand Braudel on the entire Mediterranean basin, first published in 1949. Braudel founded his

in Indispensable immigrants
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

is that, in contrast to the Jews, whose diaspora meant that they did not have a territorial presence in the known world, the Saracens were firmly associated with the southern Mediterranean and the Middle East, where the English (and others) acknowledged them as a discernible political and commercial presence. Writing to his brother-in-law, Alphonso the Wise of Castile, in 1276, King Edward I stressed the collective duty of Christian monarchs to maintain the crusading tradition against ‘the Saracens’; over the following century, English nobles and knights

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Abstract only
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

Froissart, the Hainaut-born writer and chronicler, who spent the years before the queen’s death in 1369 writing what he called ‘pretty ditties and treatises of love’ for her entertainment. 48 It was by no means only the francophone areas of Europe, however, that contributed to the cosmopolitanism of the English court in the fourteenth century. The royal family, for example, retained physicians from Mediterranean lands. The medical expert (and financier) Pancio da Controne, who came from Lombardy, was in the service of Edward II, Queen Isabella

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Colin Veach

bought more than one hundred mounts. It is unfortunate that nothing more is known of this mission, for the possibilities surrounding it are intriguing. Situated on the Mediterranean coast, Narbonne is approximately 210 miles south-­east of La Réole, where Walter was assigned his task. To reach the city, Lacy had to negotiate the rugged territory occupied by the Albigensian crusaders, passing both Toulouse and Carcassonne on the way. There is no previous evidence of Walter ever being south of Normandy, let alone to the Mediterranean, so John was sending Walter into

in Lordship in four realms
Lindy Brady

line as ‘which were seized (held) by tight bonds’. 71 Pelteret, Slavery in Early Mediaeval England, 112–63. 72 Dorothy Dilts Swartz, ‘The legal status of women in early medieval Ireland and Wales in comparison with western Europe and Mediterranean societies: environmental and social correlations’, Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 13 (1993): 107–18 at 111. 73 Robin Chapman Stacey, ‘Divorce, medieval Welsh style’, Speculum 77 (2002): 1107–27 at 1112. 74 Nerys Patterson, ‘Women as vassal: gender symmetry in medieval Wales’, Proceedings of the Harvard

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
S. H. Rigby

fields of the Knight’s martial activities represent three particular policy options open at the time. Firstly, there was the policy of fighting against Islam in Spain, a course in which John of Gaunt may have had an interest arising from his claim to the throne of Castile. 34 Secondly, there was ‘the way of Jerusalem’, crusading in the eastern Mediterranean in the footsteps of King Peter of Cyprus

in Chaucer in context
Bergur Þorgeirsson

loins. A band of these emigrants found their way to France where they took possession of one of the fairest districts and called it Normandy and the Normans became the leaders in France in the various industries, in architecture, in art and in literature. Descendants of these Normans founded kingdoms and principalities along the Mediterranean, in Italy and in Sicily; and it was they who led the van in rescuing Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher from the heathens. 21 Passages like this convey the depth of Anderson’s emotional response to Norwegian-American ethnicity

in From Iceland to the Americas
James Paz

not the only thing of interest here; I will take into account the process of its making (physical preparation, construction, designing and decorating) and the huge input of local resources:  the sheer number of calfskins used to create this monumental work, for instance, as well as the palette used by 141 Assembling and reshaping Christianity 141 the artist, which emulates Mediterranean colours by drawing on exclusively local materials. What is more, the making process of the gospel book offers a glimpse into the divine for the artist–​scribe usually assumed to

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
‘Pears on a willow’?
Nadine Kuipers

deal with this topic is Godfridus Super Palladium (henceforth GSP). This work is attributed to the German monk Gottfried von Franken, who is thought to have composed it around the middle of the fourteenth century. When writing about grafting, Gottfried augmented the text that he found in Palladius’ fifth-​ century Opus Agriculturae by borrowing from Columella, Aristotle, Isidore of Seville, and Avicenna; he also added in gleanings from several experts whom he had met during his travels across the Mediterranean. The Latin version of Gottfried’s treatise is extant in

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France