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Roderick Pace

The EU’s fifth enlargement, comprising eight CEE countries and the two Mediterranean island states of Cyprus and Malta, extended the Union’s frontiers southwards towards North Africa and further eastwards towards Russia. While, in theory, an enlarged Union has more resources at its disposal to deal with its security challenges, in practice, the larger number of member

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Vicky Randall

into territories bordering on the Ottoman Empire since the time of Peter the Great (1682–1725) and wanted to secure access to trade in the Mediterranean through the Straits. In addition, the Russians claimed affinity with the Orthodox Christians living in Ottoman territories, who were understood to be persecuted by their Muslim rulers. When Tsar Nicholas I demanded a protectorate over the twelve million Orthodox Christians living within the Ottoman Empire and sent troops into the Danubian principalities to pressure Sultan Abdülmecid I (1839–61), a Russo-Turkish war

in History, empire, and Islam
Vicky Randall

interests demand it, that our dominion in India will be imperilled, that the civilized world will crumble into atoms, if a Russian ship should be seen in the Mediterranean. If it be so then I say, perish the interests of England, perish our dominion in India, rather than we should strike a blow or speak a word on behalf of the wrong against the right . But I need hardly answer fallacies which have been answered a thousand times already. Look at the map: the path to India does not lie by Constantinople . 108 As Anthony Wohl and Michael Ragussis demonstrate, the attack

in History, empire, and Islam
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Bassam Tibi

. There are two reasons. First, the scope of the study is broadened in the Middle East by extending the concept of peace from an Arab–Israeli one to a Mediterranean peace. In this understanding of Euro-Mediterranean peace 17 fundamentalism is viewed as a threat to political stability in the Mediterranean ( Tibi, 2000c ). Second, the direct security threat posed by Hamas or Jihad Islami is pertinent

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

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Security and enlargement into the twenty-first century
Alistair J.K. Shepherd

the development of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). Elements of the new security agenda are also at the forefront of security concerns in the Mediterranean region, as demonstrated by Roderick Pace in Chapter 12 . Key issues in the Mediterranean Basin include immigration, energy security and natural resources. By acceding to the EU, Malta has moved the EU much close to the major source

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Christian Kaunert

has become one of the most important foreign policy instruments of the EU and the main policy framework for its relations with several states. Those can be organised into two categories: the eastern ENP countries (Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) and the southern Mediterranean (Med) ENP countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and the

in European internal security
Preempting disorder along the periphery
Emil Kirchner and James Sperling

instances, with economic sanctions, rule of law or police missions, and other crisis management measures. Emphasis on conflict prevention has further been strengthened through the successful post-Cold War enlargement strategies the EU has undertaken, with regard to some Mediterranean and Central and East European countries. EU enlargement has helped to create a widening area of freedom, democracy and

in EU security governance
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The evolution of a subject
Nicholas Canny

investigations into indigenous cultures. The special contribution of Andrews was that he sought to come to grips with Spanish as well as English motivations and fears by delving into Spanish as well as English archives when describing the struggle between actors from those two countries for dominance in the Caribbean which, in one of his books, he described as an ‘American Mediterranean’. 21 This telling phrase suggests that as Andrews presented England’s involvement in the Caribbean in an Atlantic setting he was looking enviously at the ease with which

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
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Jonathan Benthall

of power and stimulate business enterprise; and working at a local level to fortify grass-roots organizations, including women’s groups and zakat committees. As this book goes to press, the scale of trans-Mediterranean irregular migration and its consequences were finally becoming evident to all – with a parallel in South East Asia where the new ‘boat people’ in desperate

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times