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Georgina Sinclair

difficulties of policing Cyprus 1955–60 With the end of the mandate in Palestine and with troubles brewing in Suez, close attention was paid to Cyprus: strategically, the island’s military base was well-placed in relation to the both the Middle East and the Mediterranean. By the mid-1950s the future constitutional development of Cyprus was threatened by the campaign for the island

in At the end of the line
Colonial policing and the imperial endgame 1945–80

The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.

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West and east of Suez, 1840–45
Freda Harcourt

the company’s operations saw new lines opened to steam first in the Mediterranean, then east of Suez, thereby increasing the mileage covered and the tonnage at work and creating the infrastructure needed for expansion. The three MDs – Willcox, Anderson and Carleton – had a clear strategy: first, expansion was to be supported by mail contracts; and, second, to aim for monopoly. The Government

in Flagships of imperialism
Gavin R.G. Hambly

slavery, which, in one form or another, was ubiquitous throughout the Muslim world; and of sexual licence, the latter rooted in the early polemics of Christian schoolmen. 6 To take slavery first, by the end of the sixteenth century confrontation between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean world was characterised by raids upon each other’s shores, piracy and the capture of, and the trafficking in

in Asia in Western fiction
The pawn
Andrekos Varnava

Greece’. 32 Five governments agreed that Cyprus was useless for strategic purposes and that Britain should eventually relinquish it, which it eventually offered to do in 1912. The Mediterranean war strategy The context of the proposal was a possible war against the Triple Alliance. In 1911 there were two dangerous crises that exposed the unreadiness

in British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915
The imperial imagination
Andrekos Varnava

according to a map ‘Il Europe en 1860’, circulated in Paris. ( The Times , 14 February 1859, 14ff.) Europeans, in driving towards Jerusalem during the Crusader centuries, construed the Mediterranean as part of their space and the Enlightenment and Romantic movements

in British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915
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Flagships of imperialism
Freda Harcourt

&O. The company’s ambitions were to occupy the main trunk routes to the East, from the Iberian Peninsula through the Mediterranean, to India, China and, ultimately, to the Antipodes. Its strategy was, first, to occupy a line, ideally only where a government contract was available, and, second, to aim for monopoly. Since government contracts, where obtainable, led naturally to monopoly, these two aims went hand in

in Flagships of imperialism
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The empire and international crisis in the 1930s
Martin Thomas

to and from Mediterranean ports was made easier; tuberculosis infection and other pulmonary illnesses associated with cold conditions were minimised. 26 The War Ministry colonial section regulated the use of these colonial troops in counter-insurgency operations such as the Syrian revolt of 1925–26 and pacification operations in Morocco. Disdain for the combat

in The French empire between the wars
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Georgina Sinclair

. However, during the aftermath of the Suez crisis, it was also about keeping Britain’s options open regarding Cyprus’s future strategic role in the Mediterranean. The French transported their policing model lock, stock and barrel to their colonies. The British allegedly created a brand new model. 3 Yet, in both instances, policing relied more heavily on coercion than on

in At the end of the line
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Georgina Sinclair

colonial police forces when the size of its regular army and the scale of its imperial activities are considered. In 1715, having colonised over 500,000 people in North America, a large part of the West Indies, coastal settlements in India and outposts in the Mediterranean, Britain’s army was no bigger than the King of Sardinia’s. By 1850, the home-produced army was still conspicuously modest by comparison

in At the end of the line