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-deprecating authorial persona and also happened to be a native speaker of Middle English enhances the humble and comic connotations of Spenser’s antiquated diction. 68 On the Chaucerian model, moreover, Spenser’s narrator is capable of veering into crudely unsophisticated territory, with heavy-handed alliteration (Malbecco is a ‘cancred crabbed Carle’; III.ix.3.5); jaunty, minstrel-like addresses to the reader (‘Then listen Lordings, if ye list to weet’; III.ix.3.1); and crude monosyllables such as ‘dugs’ and ‘rompe’. 69 Anglo-Saxon and dialect vocabulary is often accentuated when

in Comic Spenser
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The Faerie Queene III–IV

missed the joke of ‘Sir Thopas’ or sought to reform it. J. A. Burrow proposes that Spenser ignored the joke in order to draw seriously on Sir Thopas’s association with chastity; ‘“ Sir Thopas” in the Sixteenth Century ’, in Middle English Studies Presented to Norman Davis , ed. Douglas Gray and E. G. Stanley ( Oxford : Clarendon Press , 1983 ), pp. 69 – 91 (p. 87 ). See also Anne Higgins , ‘ Spenser Reading Chaucer: Another Look at the Faerie Queene Allusions ’, JEGP , 89 ( 1990 ), 17 – 36 (pp. 24 – 7 ); and, to a lesser extent, Quilligan

in Comic Spenser

, Shakespeare and the Middle Ages: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at the University of Cambridge, April 2005 ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2006 ), p. 11 . 65 Defence , p. 44. 66 On burlesque responses to the ‘solemn piety of the saintly legends and devout tales’ see George H. McKnight , Middle English Humorous Tales in Verse ( New York : AMS Press , 1972 [1913] ), p. xi. 67 Foxe famously referred to Chaucer as ‘a right Wicleuian’; John Foxe, The Unabridged Acts and Monuments Online (Sheffield: Digital Humanities Institute, 2011), 1583 edn, Book

in Comic Spenser
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Overhearing Spenser in Donne

mirrors Puttenham’s characterization of the form of The Canterbury Tales as ‘but riding rhyme, nevertheless very well becoming the matter of that pleasant pilgrimage in which every man’s part is played with much decency’. 56 Elizabethan scansion of Chaucer – hampered by a lack of awareness of the likely sounding of the terminal -e in Middle English – was problematic. At one level, the Mother Hubberd frame deploys poetic modesty to disguise satiric intent (‘how could anyone be upset by such inconsequentialities?’). At another, it is seriously invested in a notion of

in Spenser and Donne
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Chaucer and romance in the manuscript tradition

violence, anti-clericalism, games of incompleteness and imitation, and women suffering from male desire. In short, in significant respects, he became more Spenserian. Defining romance In recent decades, scholarly work on the popular romance in Middle English has been plentiful and rich, alongside continued interest in the more ‘courtly’ works associated with major canonical authors. 6 This scholarship has frequently found it necessary to establish a way or ways by which the category of romance could be

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
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Reading, space and intimacy in Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde

meant to be the Roman de Thèbes – in fact, there is not a single piece of textual evidence to support this claim. One of the most important arguments in favour of the traditional reading is based on the semantics of the Middle English romaunce , usually interpreted as ‘courtly romance’ in the context of Troilus and Criseyde. 8 This, however, is a term with an

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare

interpretive aids and without extensive commentary on the difficulty of their language. Indeed, although readers might comment on the increasingly obvious antiquity of these works, the first printed glossary to a Middle English text did not appear until 1561. 8 Middle English texts were still serving as the basis for adaptations like Pericles and Two Noble Kinsmen at the turn of the seventeenth century, and notes in surviving copies of Middle English texts suggest that these books were read and understood by a wide array of

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
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means ‘a place or medium in which something is originated ... a point of origin and growth’ and is derived from Latin mater for ‘breeding female’ and the late Middle English word for ‘womb’. As a unit of thought a cliché is the fons et origo for all that is shaped into existence thereafter by using it. We live by clichés, and often we die by them, in the sense that they can reconcile us to the

in Shakespeare’s cinema of love

’ see Elizabeth Mazzola, The Pathology of the English Renaissance: Sacred Remains and Holy Ghosts (Leiden: Brill, 1998), p. 39. 17 See Rosalie Vermette, ‘Terrae Incantatae: The Symbolic Geography of Twelfth-Century Arthurian Romance’, in Geography and Literature: A Meeting of the Disciplines , ed. William E. Mallory and Paul Simpson-Housley (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1987), pp. 145–60. 18 See Stevens, Medieval Romance , p. 277. See also Carol Fewster, Traditionality and Genre in Middle English Romance (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1987). 19 See

in Edmund Spenser and the romance of space
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reader of Spenser who knows Chaucer and Middle English well, the continually met Chaucerian words, forms, and turns of speech are a constant indication of an imagination saturated with Chaucer’s poetry’. 36 The triumvirate of Chaucer, Spenser and Milton was expanded to a quartet by the addition of T.S. Eliot in Clare Kinney’s 1992 monograph, Strategies of Poetic Narrative . Kinney’s study, which uses a narratological approach, focuses on the same three long poems as Maresca, but also incorporates The Waste Land . She elegantly

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser