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Integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence
Jon Shute

4 Moral discourse and action in relation to the corpse: integrative concepts for a criminology of mass violence Jon Shute Introduction: the moral–emotional ‘work’ of serious crime in peacetime and in conflict In stable, late-modern societies, crimes are adjudicated breaches of morality formally defined in law. They are variable in content across place and time, and do not always have a readily identifiable victim or definitions that have the informal moral support of the population; however, many of the most serious offences against the person and property

in Human remains and mass violence
Rémi Korman

Representations of Rwanda have been shaped by the display of bodies and bones at Tutsi genocide memorial sites. This phenomenon is most often only studied from the perspective of moral dimensions. This article aims in contrast to cover the issues related to the treatment of human remains in Rwanda for commemorative purposes from a historical perspective. To this end, it is based on the archives of the commissions in charge of genocide memory in Rwanda, as well as interviews with key memorial actors. This study shows the evolution of memorial practices since 1994 and the hypermateriality of bodies in their use as symbols, as well as their demobilisation for the purposes of reconciliation policies.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Anne Marie Losonczy

Since the early 1990s, armed actors have invaded territories in the Chocó and Antioquia departments of Colombia, inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indians whose collective rights in these territories had recently been legally recognised. Based on long-term fieldwork among the Emberá Katío, this article examines social, cosmological and ritual alterations and re-organisation around violent death. Following a national policy of post-conflict reparations, public exhumations and identifications of human remains reveal new local modes of understanding and administration. In particular, suicide, hitherto completely unknown to the Emberá, broke out in a multitude of cases, mostly among the youth. Local discourse attributes this phenomenon to the number of stray corpses resulting from the violence, who are transformed into murderous spirits which shamans can no longer control. The analysis focusses on the unprecedented articulation of a renewed eschatology, the intricate effects of an internal political reorganisation and the simultaneous inroad into their space of new forms of armed insurrectional violence. Thus the article will shed light on the emergence of a new transitional moral economy of death among the Emberá.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Methodological approaches

Mass violence is one of the defining phenomena of the twentieth century, which some have even called the 'century of genocides'. The study of how the dead body is treated can lead us to an understanding of the impact of mass violence on contemporary societies. Corpses of mass violence and genocide, especially when viewed from a biopolitical perspective, force one to focus on the structures of the relations between all that participates in the enfolding case study. Argentina is an extraordinary laboratory in the domain of struggle against impunity and of 'restoration of the truth'. It constitutes a useful paradigm in the context of reflection on the corpses of mass violence. Its special character, in the immediate aftermath of the military dictatorship, is to test almost the entirety of juridical mechanisms in the handling of state crimes. The trigger for both the intercommunal violence and the civil war was the mass murders by the Ustaša. This book discusses the massacres carried out by the Ustaša in Croatia during the Second World War. After a brief presentation of the historical background, the massacres carried out by the Ustaša militia and their corpse disposal methods are described. Using Rwanda as a case study, the book proposes an agenda for ethnographic research to explore the relationship between concealment and display in contexts of genocide. This relationship is explored in detail after a discussion of the historical background to the 1994 genocide.

Open Access (free)
Finn Stepputat

, international peace missions and others who manage dead bodies in ways that overlap or conflict with legally institutionalised state practices. Thus, in general terms, the aim of this volume is to explore how the management of dead bodies is related to the constitution, territorialisation and membership of political and moral communities that enframe lives in various parts of the world. Unlike a previous wave of interest in the history of death 2 which during the 1980s focused on societal attitudes towards death and the effects of death in terms of interpersonal relations

in Governing the dead
Towards atypology of the treatment of corpses of ‘disappeared detainees’ in Argentinafrom 1975 to 1983
Mario Ranalletti

itself. To put it another way, what are the mechanisms that allow the breach of the cultural boundary that prohibits consciously and deliberately inflicting harm on another human being who has no chance to defend himself or herself against this violence? Through research conducted on the ideological and moral train­ ing received by Argentine army officers in the period preceding the coup, we identified – adopting the analysis of massacres proposed by Jacques Sémelin6 – within this training the constituent elements of an imaginaire of destruction, in which was

in Destruction and human remains
Open Access (free)
Deaths at sea and unidentified bodies in Lesbos
Iosif Kovras and Simon Robins

migrants in a plethora of ways, most notably through the idea that the sea and its dangers to migrants are doing the job of defending the EU’s borders against the migrant invasion. This resonates with European states’ externalisation of elements of border and immigration control to the territory of states of migrant departure or transit, and to the militarisation of the Mediterranean. The deaths at sea, as a part of this externalisation, successfully delocalise migrant deaths, removing them from the legal and moral purview of Europeans. The legal responsibility for

in Migrating borders and moving times
Christian Suhr

driving force of human life is located in economic calculation. According to Mattingly ( 2010 : 52), despite these brave efforts, genuine human agency, moral ‘willing’, and creativity still escape the anthropological gaze. As Ortner ( 2006 : 2) points out in a critique of structuralist strands in anthropology, we still need to recognise not only how ‘history makes people’, but also how ‘people make history’. In line with such thinking, Csordas ( 1997 : vii) proposed that in anthropology the answer to the central question of what a human is

in Descending with angels
Open Access (free)
Crossing borders, changing times
Madeleine Hurd, Hastings Donnan and Carolin Leutloff-Grandits

time as borders are redrawn. Our second theme explores how time features in the cross-border networks of migrants, emphasising in particular the affective networks that link, fragment or rupture ties between spouses, neighbours, friends and families. Here the challenges posed by temporal synchrony and disjuncture both within and beyond the borders across which these migrants move shape not only the practical but also the moral and emotional contexts in which they live their daily lives. Our third theme explores time in relation to the body itself as borders are

in Migrating borders and moving times
Abstract only
Waiting for freedom
Liene Ozoliņa

leaves people with little choice as to the kinds of persons they will become. (Dunn 2004: 67, emphasis in the original) The precarisation of many that the two waves of austerity, in the 1990s and after the 2008 crisis, have brought certainly provides grounds for such disillusionment. The ever-growing economic inequalities in most countries of the region do as well. People have been living with a sense of ‘permanent crisis’ (Shevchenko 2009) that does not even feel like a crisis any more. Some scholars even claim that we have witnessed a ‘moral breakdown’ in the

in Politics of waiting