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Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
John Morrow

Carlyle regarded the Reformation as a seminal event in the history of modern Europe, the starting point of an ongoing stage in human development. Reformation Protestantism gave birth to a more general and pervasive spirit of ‘reformation’ that Carlyle identified with the moral destiny of all individuals and communities. These qualities were epitomized by heroic figures such as Luther and Cromwell but they were also embedded in cultures that responded productively to the ongoing challenge of reformation. Having traced the history of the ethos of reformation through English Puritanism and in the commitment to transformative action or ‘work’ that gave rise to Britains emergence as a leading industrial and imperial power, Carlyle brought this reinvention of the Reformation to bear in his critique of the counter-reforming tendencies in early Victorian society that he saw as posing a profound threat to it.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Photographic allegories of Victorian identity and empire
Author: Jeff Rosen

The Victorians admired Julia Margaret Cameron for her evocative photographic portraits of eminent men like Tennyson, Carlyle, and Darwin. But Cameron also made numerous photographs called ‘fancy subjects’ that depicted scenes from literature, personifications from classical mythology, and biblical parables from the Old and New Testament. Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’ is the first comprehensive study of these works, examining Cameron’s use of historical allegories and popular iconography to embed moral, intellectual, and political narratives in her photographs. A work of cultural history as much as art history, this book examines cartoons from Punch and line drawings from the Illustrated London News; cabinet photographs and Autotype prints; textiles and wall paper; book illustrations and engravings from period folios, all as a way to contextualize the allegorical subjects that Cameron represented, revealing connections between her ‘fancy subjects’ and popular debates about such topics as biblical interpretation, democratic government, national identity, and colonial expansion.

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Jeff Rosen

, and the popular illustrated press, and she employed allegory to embed latent or secondary meanings in her photographs. She trusted photography to communicate ideas that were vital to the formation of British national identity and she chose subjects that would allow her to embed moral lessons to strengthen the nation’s character. She called these allegorical photographs ‘fancy subjects’ and over the course of a dozen years applied a discerning intellectual framework and deliberate artistic working method to assign specific titles to her imagery. She returned to these

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’
Epic and lyric in Idylls of the King
Jeff Rosen

fashion of the day’.1 When he wrote The Epic, Tennyson conceived it as a frame for his Morte d’Arthur, to provide a context for readers to allow them to imagine Arthur’s return from Avalon as a way to redeem the moral centre of modern England. In the tale of Arthur’s return, Tennyson used medieval ethics as a kind of historical model for honourable and virtuous action that could stand in opposition to the forces of deceit, treachery, and decadence. The Epic sets this stage well, drawing upon the medieval past to provide guidance and direction for the confused and

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’
Frederick H. White

neurasthenia was one of the signs of an individual’s physical, moral and psychological devolution. The majority of this chapter explores the development of this scientific discourse in order to better understand the context for Andreev’s diagnosis. Following a discussion of the science of degeneration, attention will be given to literary decadence. Degeneration emerged as scientific theory, but was soon incorporated into legal, political and literary discourse. The idea of a nation in a state of decline coincided with other cultural trends which viewed the end of the

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
Dolores Tierney

– the prostitute – within a narrative of conventional morality (Hershfield, 1996 : 77). Elsewhere I have argued that Salón México embodies the patriarchal conservative values of the institutionalized Revolution which map female virtue onto to a sense of nationhood (Tierney, 1997 ). Here I argue that Fernández’ revolutionary moral and ideological discourse of female sacrifice and patriarchal orthodoxy

in Emilio Fernández
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The military in British art, 1815-1914

In an age when engraving and photography were making artistic images available to a much wider public, artists were able to influence public attitudes more powerfully than ever before. This book examines works of art on military themes in relation to ruling-class ideologies about the army, war and the empire. The first part of the book is devoted to a chronological survey of battle painting, integrated with a study of contemporary military and political history. The chapters link the debate over the status and importance of battle painting to contemporary debates over the role of the army and its function at home and abroad. The second part discusses the intersection of ideologies about the army and military art, but is concerned with an examination of genre representations of soldiers. Another important theme which runs through the book is the relation of English to French military art. During the first eighty years of the period under review France was the cynosure of military artists, the school against which British critics measured their own, and the place from which innovations were imported and modified. In every generation after Waterloo battle painters visited France and often trained there. The book shows that military art, or the 'absence' of it, was one of the ways in which nationalist commentators articulated Britain's moral superiority. The final theme which underlies much of the book is the shifts which took place in the perception of heroes and hero-worship.