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Divorce, birth control and abortion

3 Moral dilemmas: divorce, birth control and abortion S ignificant changes in public attitudes towards divorce, birth control and abortion occurred during the inter-war period. Legislation was introduced which extended the grounds for divorce and for the first time information on birth control was made available to married mothers at local authority clinics, albeit on strict medical grounds. Concerns about the rise in the maternal mortality rate highlighted the prevalence, as well as the dangers, of illegal abortion. This led to a number of women’s groups

in Housewives and citizens

 3 0 2 Religious and moral values The image of Communism in Catholic doctrine In a country where the word ‘cristiano’ (Christian) has often been used as a synonym for ‘human being’ as opposed to ‘bestia’ (animal), Catholicism’s depiction of the Communists as ‘atei’ and ‘senza Dio’ (atheists and godless) helped to sharpen the contrast between ideological positions that extended beyond the sphere of formal politics. However, both historians and the contemporary observers of the battle between Catholicism and Communism have too often simply stated that Catholic

in Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy
Women and youth across a century of censure

11 Folk devils and moral panics: women and youth across a century of censure F irst enunciated in 1972 as an explanation for specific types of public responses to fears or alarms, sociologist Stanley Cohen’s concept of a ‘moral panic’ has attracted considerable attention from scholars.1 Curiously, despite this impressive literature, many historians have embraced the concept without explaining clearly what they thought constituted a moral panic, especially in analyses of the First World War. Since publication of his book, Cohen’s concept has been refined in

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

… is the structure of a shared moral universe … that makes possible a collective (though rarely coordinated) action born of moral outrage. 2 The planters had a monopoly on local employment, controlled access to poor relief and pensions (until the Richardson reforms), owned most of the land on which their labourers rested their houses

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
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Criminality during the occupation

134 v 5 v Moral borderlands: Criminality during the occupation Examining misconduct has already required a blurring of the lines between illegal and legal definitions of behaviours in occupied France. This chapter leans towards the legal by considering general criminality, another neglected area in works on the occupation. Studying criminality poses well-​known challenges. Police reports and statistics evidently only demonstrate reported crimes, simply offering a glimpse into actual criminality  –​albeit a useful, suggestive one. Thus, the reality of

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18
Open Access (free)
Women and public transport

forget that, on the one hand, appearances may be deceiving, and, on the other, a certain eagerness on your part may be misinterpreted.) Perhaps even more importantly than the specifics of her advice, the article is based on Raymond’s personal experience, thus indicating that taking public transport was an entirely proper and common thing to do for a woman of good moral standing. If this paragon of bourgeois propriety and feminine virtue could ride an omnibus alone, then any respectable woman could too, without risking her reputation. And yet Aunt Cœur

in Engine of modernity

 164 6 The fragmented legacies of Chartist moral politics The legacy of Chartism’s culture of moral improvement has been a major point of debate for several decades. Initially, Marxist historiography subscribed to the ‘labour aristocracy’ thesis that the elite of the working class were ‘embourgeoised’ by middle-​class Liberals who provided them with increased wages and the vote in order to create a compliant bulwark against other sections of the working class. While the existence of a labour aristocracy as either an elite or a cohesive body has been debunked it

in Popular virtue

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 3 Moral policemen of the domestic economy Guinness good. Sherry good. No wine. No coal. No petrol. No gas. No electric. No paraffin. John Betjeman, 27 March 1943 From ‘voluntary measures of economy’ to full rationing The shortages John Betjeman grumpily recorded to friends in England highlight the gaps in the Irish supply system. While Betjeman’s government bore much responsibility for the shortages, the role of the Department of Supplies also demands scrutiny. It is surprising that firmer steps were not taken by

in Ireland during the Second World War

1 The role of work in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century treatises on moral treatment in France, Tuscany and Britain Jane Freebody This chapter will assess whether British, French and Tuscan authors writing about the moral treatment of insanity in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries advocated work as an essential aspect of this new method of treatment.1 It will be argued that work was not considered an integral part of moral treatment throughout the period 1750–1840. The sources comprise sixteen contemporary publications focusing on

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015

deeper Indian socio-cultural and gender complexity and diversity. The missions directly linked the European moral body and its supposed physical decline to cohabitation with Indian mistresses and the over-stimulation of India’s heat, with resulting overpopulation borne from a lack of moral restraint. 5 With this new perspective, educational questions, particularly regarding females, were now problematic

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932