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advocate a traditional view (Pascal had done the same), neither was Rousseau the first to reject the prevailing positivist doctrine. Nor, for that matter, was he the last to do so (Kierkegaard was later to strike similar chords). But Rousseau was possibly the most eloquent – and the most misunderstood – of the antimodernists.4 John Locke, not normally regarded as an anti-modernist, warned against the challenge of the atheist philosophers in The Reasonableness of Christianity: ‘Collect all the moral rules of philosophers and compare them with those contained in the New

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The book argues that the frontier, usually associated with the era of colonial conquest, has great, continuing and under explored relevance to the Caribbean region. Identifying the frontier as a moral, ideational and physical boundary between what is imagined as civilization and wilderness, the book seeks to extend frontier analysis by focusing on the Eastern Caribbean multi island state of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The continuing relevance of the concept of frontier, and allied notions of civilization and wilderness, are illuminated through an analysis of the ways in which SVG is perceived and experienced by both outsiders to the society and its insiders. Using literary sources, biographies and autobiography, the book shows how St. Vincent is imagined and made sense of as a modern frontier; a society in the balance between an imposed civilized order and an untameable wild that always encroaches, whether in the form of social dislocation, the urban presence of the ‘Wilderness people’ or illegal marijuana farming in the northern St. Vincent hills. The frontier as examined here has historically been and remains very much a global production. Simultaneously, it is argued that contemporary processes of globalization shape the development of tourism and finance sectors, as well as patterns of migration, they connect to shifting conceptions of the civilized and the wild, and have implications for the role of the state and politics in frontier societies.

Drinking to excess has been a striking problem for industrial and post-industrial societies – who is responsible when a ‘free’ individual opts for a slow suicide? The causes of such drinking have often been blamed on heredity, moral weakness, ‘disease’ (addiction), hedonism, and Romantic illusion. Yet there is another reason which may be more fundamental and which has been overlooked or dismissed, and it is that the drinker may act with sincere philosophical intent. The Existential Drinker looks at the convergence of a new kind of excessive, habitual drinking, beginning in the nineteenth century, and a new way of thinking about the self which in the twentieth century comes to be labelled ‘Existential’. A substantial introduction covers questions of self, will, consciousness, authenticity, and ethics in relation to drinking, while introducing aspects of Existential thought pertinent to the discussion. The Existential-drinker canon is anchored in Jack London’s ‘alcoholic memoir’ John Barleycorn (1913), where London claims he can get at the truth of existence only through the insights afforded by excessive and repeated alcohol use. The book then covers drinker-texts such as Jean Rhys’s interwar novels, Malcolm Lowry’s Under the Volcano, Charles Jackson’s The Lost Weekend and John O’Brien’s Leaving Las Vegas, along with less well-known works such as Frederick Exley’s A Fan’s Notes, Venedikt Yerofeev’s Moscow–Petushki, and A. L. Kennedy’s Paradise. The book will appeal to anybody with an interest in drinking and literature, as well as those with more specialised concerns in drinking studies, Existentialism, twentieth-century literature, and medical humanities.

members who are not capable of deliberative political speech. We will argue that these cases raise a fundamental challenge to our theories of democratic inclusion, not just about who is included, but also about what it means to be a citizen and how to characterize the underlying moral purposes of citizenship. To foreshadow, our argument is that these cases reveal a deep tension within democratic theory between two models of citizenship: what we

in Democratic inclusion

, The Iron Heel, a dystopian fiction admired by Orwell, The Sea-​Wolf, and Martin Eden, a semi-​ autobiographical novel), adventurer, world celebrity. John Barleycorn is one of the first all-​out formulations of the writer-​as-​drinker, mixing the nineteenth-​century temperance view of the habitual drinker who is a moral failure with the image of the heavy-​drinking writer who can attain truths not available to the run-​of-​the-​mill drunkard, nor indeed available to the run-​of-​the-​mill sober citizen. At the end of the book London appears ambivalent as to his own

in The Existential drinker

being defended. It is worth conceding, certainly, that in postmodern times, the Arnoldian – ideal – concept of culture is now dead. For Matthew Arnold, culture was something to pit against nature: to raise nature up to something better than itself. This was culture as moral ideal.4 No 2 See P. Osborne, The Politics of Time (London: Verso, 1995). 3 J.-F. Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition, trans. G. Bennington (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 79. 4 See M. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy (1869) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963); cf. Z. Bauman

in The structure of modern cultural theory
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In the beginning was song

forget, was writing against the backdrop of the ‘disenchantment of the world’. Even music, he believed, was in danger of being swept away by the torrents of scientism and wanton philosophy. Rameau,2 not only a composer but also a materialist musicologist, had developed an ingenious and elaborate science of music based on Newtonian physics. This was an almost blasphemous position according to Rousseau. In Lettre sur la musique française, he wrote, ‘If you limit the music to motions [and other physical phenomena], you completely rob it of its moral effects.’ Moral

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Once more, with feeling

make such an offensive sound, because I  have heard that one must meet one’s end in calmed silence. So be quiet and collect yourselves’. From ancient philosophy, then, one quickly learns that emotions are too ­vulgar and fickle to be granted entry into the lofty realm of ethical and moral life. Indeed, if on occasion certain emotional states (for instance, ‘anger’ in Aristotelian philosophy) have been granted a degree of virtue in potentia, this is only on condition that reason be brought in to validate and justify such emotions in an appropriately philosophical

in Critical theory and feeling
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as in Adorno these are to do with the culture industries, as in Foucault they are to do with the machinations of power and discipline, or as in Bourdieu they are to do with the sacralisation of cultural creativity. Hence, we have implied that modern cultural theory is characterised by a sort of ethical bias or prejudice. Perhaps, then, this is really only a negative conception of ethics. There is no ‘thick’ ethical or moral substance at stake here in that no positive, substantive view of ethical value is implied beyond the basic value of autonomy – collective or

in The structure of modern cultural theory

the constraint of style’.19 With the Greeks, what was at stake according to Foucault was not a hermeneutics of desire (self-scrutiny, inwardness, confession) nor a ‘codification’ of how one ought to behave (moral codes) but, on the contrary, a stylisation of one’s existence in a broadly aesthetic sense. Note the extent to which this is an ‘ethical’ understanding of aesthetics, something which characterises all of Foucault’s approach to these issues. As such, aesthetics of existence are distinguishable from two alternative forms of regulating or shaping subjectivity

in The structure of modern cultural theory