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Examining Ireland’s failure to regulate embryonic stem cell research

10 A moral gap? Examining Ireland’s failure to regulate embryonic stem cell research Ciara Staunton Introduction Developments in human biotechnology have created new ethical concerns. Just as the early years of organ transplant technology brought about a change in our concept of death, developments in embryology are challenging our concept of what constitutes life. Progress in medical science has now made it possible not only to create an embryo in a laboratory, but to destroy that same embryo in the course of medical research. While there is great potential for

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare

1 The role of work in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century treatises on moral treatment in France, Tuscany and Britain Jane Freebody This chapter will assess whether British, French and Tuscan authors writing about the moral treatment of insanity in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries advocated work as an essential aspect of this new method of treatment.1 It will be argued that work was not considered an integral part of moral treatment throughout the period 1750–1840. The sources comprise sixteen contemporary publications focusing on

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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construction of asylums in the early nineteenth century will be juxtaposed with the built environment and the institution-specific needs which drove individual asylums to adapt their buildings in certain ways. Far from homogenous, asylums were highly specialised to their local populations. The material fabric of the buildings themselves evidences the individuality of local authorities in their approach to asylum building, and the varying interpretations of reform ideals such as moral management and non-restraint. Asylum architecture and the use of asylum buildings is

in An archaeology of lunacy
A feminist analysis of the Neary and Halappanavar cases

cases are very different from one another in many respects, they also share important similarities. They provide evidence of not only a profound unease with women’s reproductive capacity but also the influence of Catholic norms on healthcare practice, and the denigration of women’s moral authority, agency and professional credibility (sometimes by women themselves). These are two examples among many in recent times where these kinds of factors have led to the abuse and deprecation of women in Ireland (McAleese, 2013; Walsh, 2013). My feminist reading of these

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare

been hard-­won, also animates the justification for legal limits on CO. In arguing for a harm reduction approach, the account offered here draws on, but distinguishes itself from, those who have relied on public obligations to refute CO and those who have relied on an individual right to moral integrity to ground CO. Conscientious objection and critical consciousness Some believe that healthcare professionals should not be able to refuse healthcare on grounds of conscience (Savulescu, 2006; Kelleher, 2010; Gallagher et al., 2013: 6; Fiala and Arthur, 2014) and that

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
Reason and relation in the work cure

Retreat Near York, published June 1813, in which it is declared that of all methods to coax the melancholic patient back to reality and reason, work was to be regarded both the most effective and efficacious. As is well known in the history of psychiatry, the Description of the Retreat: An Institution Near York for Insane Persons of the Society of Friends, is the detailed and often lively account of the enigmatic Quaker Retreat in North Yorkshire, England, at which moral treatment – and thus work therapy by association – is widely credited to have had its English

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Artificial limb patents, medical professionalism and the moral economy in ante

137 6 ITINERANT MANIPULATORS AND PUBLIC BENEFACTORS: ARTIFICIAL LIMB PATENTS, MEDIC AL PROFESSIONALISM AND THE MORAL ECONOMY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERIC A Caroline Lieffers ‘The legal right is, of course, not disputed; the moral right is by no means so clear.’ So wrote Robert Arthur, a professor at the Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery, in 1853.1 Arthur was referring to the practice of patenting, which was at the centre of contentious debates to define ethics and etiquette in a variety of health professions in nineteenth-​century America. The legal right was in

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
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Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century

Unlike most other forms of historical writing, histories of public health are moral narratives. For more than a century, historians of the infectious diseases that were long its chief focus have been able to unfold the drama of heroic social and scientific achievement over complacency and ignorance. That narrative is possible because author and reader share metrics of progress – through microbiology and epidemiology. One knows what needs to happen. Suffering from faecal-oral diseases? Stop ingesting … But what and who will facilitate, or

in Progress and pathology
The construction of ‘workshy’, ‘industrious’ and (non-)compliant inmates in forced labour facilities in the First Republic of Austria between 1918 and 1933

12 They were ‘improved’, punished and cured: The construction of ‘workshy’, ‘industrious’ and (non-)compliant inmates in forced labour facilities in the First Republic of Austria between 1918 and 1933 Sonja Hinsch Mathilde S., a twenty-one-year-old woman from Styria, was regarded as ‘workshy’. She would roam the streets and beg. She also suffered from epilepsy. Her illness was considered to exacerbate her moral weakness. She was convicted for vagrancy and begging, had to serve one month in prison, then was detained and forced to work in a ‘Zwangsarbeitsanstalt

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015

This book explores the experiences of the sick poor between the 1750s and through the so-called crisis of the Old Poor Law ending in the 1830s. It provides a comprehensive and colourful overview of the nature, scale and negotiation of medical welfare. At its core stand the words and lives of the poor themselves, reconstructed in painstaking detail to show that medical welfare became a totemic issue for parochial authorities by the 1830s. The book suggests that the Old Poor Law confronted a rising tide of sickness by the early nineteenth century. While there are spectacular instances of parsimony and neglect in response to rising need, in most places and at most times, parish officers seem to have felt moral obligations to the sick. Indeed, we might construct their responses as considerate and generous. To some extent this reflected Christian paternalism but also other factors such as a growing sense that illness, even illness among the poor, was and should be remediable and a shared territory of negotiation between paupers, advocates and officials. The result was a canvas of medical welfare with extraordinary depth. By the 1820s, more of the ill-health of ordinary people was captured by the poor law and being doctored or sojourning in an institution became part of pauper and parochial expectation. These trends are brought to vivid life in the words of the poor and their advocates, such that the book genuinely offers a re-interpretation of the Old Poor Law from the bottom up.