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will show in the coming chapters, this fear generates many significant moral questions that need to be addressed before societies fully embark on this new path. One of them is linked with the fact that capacity-increasing technologies will allow some soldiers to benefit from advantages over their foes who do not benefit from them. However, as has been argued already, it would be a mistake to conclude automatically that they

in A theory of the super soldier

T HIS CHAPTER EXAMINES the use of moral suasion in cases of violence, justified as humanitarian intervention. It argues that rather than this being reflective of normative shifts in world politics brought about by global civil society, it can be explained by referring to the role of power and interests. After an examination of how supporters of global civil society

in Violence and the state
The morality of capacity-increasing technologies in the military

Throughout history, states have tried to create the perfect combatant, with superhuman physical and cognitive features akin to those of comic book superheroes. However, the current innovations have nothing to do with the ones from the past, and their development goes beyond a simple technological perspective. On the contrary, they are raising the prospect of a human-enhancement revolution that will change the ways in which future wars will be fought and may even profoundly alter the foundations upon which our modern societies are built. This book discusses the full ethical implications of these new technologies, making it a unique resource for students and scholars interested in the morality of warfare.

Refusing to adopt a binary vision, political theorist Jean-François Caron argues that, when analysed from an ethical viewpoint, the development and use of capacity-increasing technologies in the military is far more complex than it first appears, since it presents us with a significant moral dilemma. On the one hand, enhancing soldiers’ capacities can be interpreted as a moral obligation on the part of the military. On the other, such technologies might also end up harming fundamental moral principles of warfare. Without condemning them as evil and inadmissible, Professor Caron proposes a nuanced and balanced appraisal of capacity-increasing technologies in the military as a tool that ought to be used contingently on the respect of certain moral criteria.

that “the assertion that the ends of police violence are always identical or even connected to those of general law is entirely untrue.”6) The experiences from penal law in particular show that legal coercion does not actually help to hinder hindrances of law; state-​inflicted punishment –​paradigmatically the prison system –​rather continually produces and reproduces “milieus of delinquency”7 outside of the legal order. 99 Law without violence 99 Besides their empirical ineffectivity, moral objections can be raised against means of coercion on strictly

in Law and violence
Reflections on Menke’s ‘Law and violence’

couldn’t the same be said of the practice of moral judgment and moral conduct, which obviously consists of actors trying to preserve the distinctiveness of “the moral point of view” from contamination with “non-​moral” or “extra-​moral” considerations? Does a moral culture, an ethos, commit violence when it tries to preserve its own integrity as a system of principles and values aimed at orienting conduct? Paradoxically, couldn’t the same claim be raised with respect to art and the aesthetic sphere? Since it has emerged as an autonomous sphere of human practice, guided

in Law and violence
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support were developed for those suffering from ‘deportation pathology’, a diagnosis resting on a ‘fabricated universality’ of experience.44 What they had in common, however, was their wartime distance from French territory; little recognition was given to psychologically troubled civilians who had remained in France. The experience of bombing was buried under the moral and psychological reconstruction of a nation. Such historical circumstances restricted the expression of traumatic experience among parts of the French population. Part of the social context of trauma

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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community solidarity in Hellemmes, and described their participation as entr’aide (mutual aid), rather than duty or service. The capricious nature of where bombs fell created mutual insecurity. It made sense, therefore, that rescue work was shared:  next time, the rescuer could need saving. Although Vichy tried to harness this mood of entr’aide v 130 v In the aftermath to its communitarian project, treating it as evidence of successful moral renewal, it seems unlikely that community reaction to local disaster was underpinned by the ideology of the National Revolution

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45

, permitting a focus on purposeful suffering, a common theme in children’s publishing.32 Children were told to turn their backs on the material world and to lead a moral, spiritual life.33 To demand greater sacrifice seemed quite hard, however, given the extent of family separation and penury. For many, there was little to give up. The idea was that individual children could, and should, contribute, through hard work and suffering now, to a better future. They could bring about national regeneration. Yet nothing advised them about how to handle war. They were ascribed agency

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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A conclusion

historical discussion which places so much weight on moral responsibilities for decisions taken in the past. Yet children do have agency:  they make decisions, they act according to their desires and ideas, but there are limitations and no easy way to generalise about them. Oral histories permit the analysis of perceptions of personal agency in interpretations of the past, which are particularly important in composing a coherent sense of one’s own past. Sometimes, interviewees removed their own agency, placing responsibility in the hands of fate, luck or God. Agency thus

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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Ian McEwan’s The Children Act and the limits of the legal practices in Menke’s ‘Law and violence’

her situatedness: it is done for a reason, in response to someone or something (in this case, her husband). And her own body responds as a situated body in a way Fiona’s more conscious processing must sometimes catch up with. The bulk of the novel, as we shall see, traces the legal and moral consequences of this understanding of human identity. McEwan has already explored such issues explicitly in the novel Saturday (2005), one of the central concerns of which is the relation between advances in neurology and ethical choices.17 The neurosurgeon protagonist has a

in Law and violence