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1 The role of work in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century treatises on moral treatment in France, Tuscany and Britain Jane Freebody This chapter will assess whether British, French and Tuscan authors writing about the moral treatment of insanity in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries advocated work as an essential aspect of this new method of treatment.1 It will be argued that work was not considered an integral part of moral treatment throughout the period 1750–1840. The sources comprise sixteen contemporary publications focusing on

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Reason and relation in the work cure

Retreat Near York, published June 1813, in which it is declared that of all methods to coax the melancholic patient back to reality and reason, work was to be regarded both the most effective and efficacious. As is well known in the history of psychiatry, the Description of the Retreat: An Institution Near York for Insane Persons of the Society of Friends, is the detailed and often lively account of the enigmatic Quaker Retreat in North Yorkshire, England, at which moral treatment – and thus work therapy by association – is widely credited to have had its English

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Artificial limb patents, medical professionalism and the moral economy in ante

137 6 ITINERANT MANIPULATORS AND PUBLIC BENEFACTORS: ARTIFICIAL LIMB PATENTS, MEDIC AL PROFESSIONALISM AND THE MORAL ECONOMY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERIC A Caroline Lieffers ‘The legal right is, of course, not disputed; the moral right is by no means so clear.’ So wrote Robert Arthur, a professor at the Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery, in 1853.1 Arthur was referring to the practice of patenting, which was at the centre of contentious debates to define ethics and etiquette in a variety of health professions in nineteenth-​century America. The legal right was in

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Open Access (free)
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century

Unlike most other forms of historical writing, histories of public health are moral narratives. For more than a century, historians of the infectious diseases that were long its chief focus have been able to unfold the drama of heroic social and scientific achievement over complacency and ignorance. That narrative is possible because author and reader share metrics of progress – through microbiology and epidemiology. One knows what needs to happen. Suffering from faecal-oral diseases? Stop ingesting … But what and who will facilitate, or

in Progress and pathology
The construction of ‘workshy’, ‘industrious’ and (non-)compliant inmates in forced labour facilities in the First Republic of Austria between 1918 and 1933

12 They were ‘improved’, punished and cured: The construction of ‘workshy’, ‘industrious’ and (non-)compliant inmates in forced labour facilities in the First Republic of Austria between 1918 and 1933 Sonja Hinsch Mathilde S., a twenty-one-year-old woman from Styria, was regarded as ‘workshy’. She would roam the streets and beg. She also suffered from epilepsy. Her illness was considered to exacerbate her moral weakness. She was convicted for vagrancy and begging, had to serve one month in prison, then was detained and forced to work in a ‘Zwangsarbeitsanstalt

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015

This book explores the experiences of the sick poor between the 1750s and through the so-called crisis of the Old Poor Law ending in the 1830s. It provides a comprehensive and colourful overview of the nature, scale and negotiation of medical welfare. At its core stand the words and lives of the poor themselves, reconstructed in painstaking detail to show that medical welfare became a totemic issue for parochial authorities by the 1830s. The book suggests that the Old Poor Law confronted a rising tide of sickness by the early nineteenth century. While there are spectacular instances of parsimony and neglect in response to rising need, in most places and at most times, parish officers seem to have felt moral obligations to the sick. Indeed, we might construct their responses as considerate and generous. To some extent this reflected Christian paternalism but also other factors such as a growing sense that illness, even illness among the poor, was and should be remediable and a shared territory of negotiation between paupers, advocates and officials. The result was a canvas of medical welfare with extraordinary depth. By the 1820s, more of the ill-health of ordinary people was captured by the poor law and being doctored or sojourning in an institution became part of pauper and parochial expectation. These trends are brought to vivid life in the words of the poor and their advocates, such that the book genuinely offers a re-interpretation of the Old Poor Law from the bottom up.

Editor: Claire L. Jones

Drawing together essays written by scholars from Great Britain and the United States, this book provides an important contribution to the emerging field of disability history. It explores the development of modern transatlantic prosthetic industries in nineteenth and twentieth centuries and reveals how the co-alignment of medicine, industrial capitalism, and social norms shaped diverse lived experiences of prosthetic technologies and in turn, disability identities. Through case studies that focus on hearing aids, artificial tympanums, amplified telephones, artificial limbs, wigs and dentures, this book provides a new account of the historic relationship between prostheses, disability and industry. Essays draw on neglected source material, including patent records, trade literature and artefacts, to uncover the historic processes of commodification surrounding different prostheses and the involvement of neglected companies, philanthropists, medical practitioners, veterans, businessmen, wives, mothers and others in these processes. Its culturally informed commodification approach means that this book will be relevant to scholars interested in cultural, literary, social, political, medical, economic and commercial history.

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7 Inside the asylums On 30 January 1857, a single woman entered Carlow asylum and was diagnosed as suffering from ‘mania’. She had become ill the previous November and the medical superintendent recorded that there was a history of insanity in her father’s family. Religion, and specifically the ‘late mission in the town’, was recorded as the exciting cause of illness. She was discharged in May 1858. Her recovery was accredited to the ‘general moral treatment of the establishment with attention to general health’.1 She had been prescribed sedatives and a robust

in Negotiating insanity in the southeast of Ireland, 1820–1900

being made ‘according to agreement’ with the paupers.7 The rest of this chapter will (after a discussion of the meaning of pauper letters) explore three aspects of the negotiation process: the nature of the legal, customary, agential and moral space within which the claims of the sick poor sat; the rhetorical and other strategies employed as they engaged with officials; and the way in which parochial officers understood the rights of the sick poor in particular. Negotiating medical welfare71 It will suggest inter alia that, as we began to see in Chapter 1, claims of

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Open Access (free)
The French human sciences and the crafting of modern subjectivity, 1794–1816

been inflicted by the Revolution had revealed hitherto unknown powers of the mind. 2 It was, he argued, the reign of malicious customs among the enslaved peoples in particular – causing a ‘moral fever’ – that had led to the outbreak of Revolution. 3 He believed that women, especially, offered proof that ‘moral affections’ contributed to healing, providing the example of a case of dropsy stemming from puffiness in the legs. 4

in Progress and pathology