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Zhvanko and Oleksiy Nestulya Conclusion The refugee phenomenon during the First World War was a new social phenomenon that embraced the European continent. It produced moral and psychological damage on a large scale. It shattered the lives of millions of people, deprived them of shelter and a family life, and radically altered attitudes towards life, religion, and cultural and spiritual values. Ukraine found itself at the centre of military events and thus became an epicentre of mass displacement. Nevertheless, having set up its own state institutions, Ukraine was able

in Europe on the move
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary

refugees to Bohemian villages where there was no local Jewish population, or to hastily constructed, notoriously inadequate barracks in Moravia, was a religious, moral and material catastrophe. Instead of ‘Refugee Aid v 163 v Rebekah Klein-Pejšová Committee’, it wryly suggested that the organisation’s name be changed to the ‘Anti-Refugee Committee’ (Flüchtlingsgegner Komitee).33 The Ungarländische Jüdische Zeitung, in the same vein, accused the Hungarian Jewish leadership of treating their Galician brothers poorly. It called attention to the ‘high, widely visible stage

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Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia During World War I (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999), pp. 22–6. 14 New research on Armenian refugees in Russia is currently being undertaken by Asya Darbinyan, PhD candidate, Clark University, USA. In its session on 3 October 1915, the Special Council for Refugees spoke of ‘foreign nationals’ to whom Russia had a ‘moral obligation’. Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii arkhiv (RGIA), fond 1322, opis’ 1, delo 1, ll. 25–7ob. 15 Not only in relation to the First World War: see Andrew Shacknove, ‘Who is a refugee

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.12 The cruelty of its perpetrators led observers such as Glinka to conclude that the refugees would never forgive the Russians for this suffering, and that not the material, but the moral aspect was the most flagrant, namely ‘treating the Polish nation as a herd of cattle’.13 From the outset, the scale of the migration took the Russian authorities by surprise. Eyewitnesses mentioned thousands of refugees clogging the roads, even in the Kingdom of Poland. Landowner and social activist Michał Stanisław Korwin-Kossakowski who, at the time of the withdrawal, found

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The long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34

Radko Dimitriev (1859–1918) embarked on the large-scale destruction and arson of villages, beatings and torture, forced conversions, indiscriminate v 304 v Becoming and unbecoming refugees mass killing, and mass expulsion of Ottoman Muslims.2 Leon Trotsky, reporting for the Kievskaia Mysl’, singled out Dimitriev as having been responsible for campaigns of ethnic cleansing and massacre, describing him as someone ‘deeply animated by those features of careerism including careless zeal and moral cynicism’. When stubborn Ottoman defences frustrated his ambition to conquer

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of widespread anti-Americanism and of America losing her moral position … Should the President try to link this question with support for the pound I would regard this as most unfortunate … If the financial weakness we inherited and are in the process of putting right is to be used as a means of forcing us to accept unpalatable policies or developments regardless of our

in A ‘special relationship’?

refugee movements were ‘gravely detrimental in moral respects’ as they promoted the ‘unscrupulous transfer of moveable property’.9 Nonetheless, the flow of refugees could not be stemmed. In total, according to one contemporary observer, ‘more than 870,000 people … during the [Russian] invasion left house and home … followed by some 300,000 during the second invasion. They needed to be housed outside the province of East Prussia in temporary accommodation’.10 Many of them were taken on special trains to Pomerania, Schleswig, Lüneburg, Frankfurt/Oder, Potsdam, Osnabrück

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Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War

portion of the population certainly fled from the advancing front lines, others were forcibly removed from the war zone by the Austrian army because of their supposed political unreliability, or because the army was attempting to contain epidemic disease, or secure military supplies and basic necessities. The Habsburg authorities did attempt to maintain a distinction between refugees and evacuees. This distinction also evoked a moral dimension: refugees could be pitied for their plight, whereas evacuees were at least politically unreliable and suspected of unpatriotic

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Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War

main goals: to avoid a clash between the refugees and the local civilian population, particularly the German-speaking population, and to control the refugees, since they were considered ‘potential traitors’ and a risk to local sanitary conditions.33 All those unable to work, due to the great number of children, illness or age, and all persons showing dangerous behaviour – such as those making complaints or regarded as manifesting moral turpitude or health problems – were ordered to be sent to concentration camps, where they lived in alarmingly unhygienic conditions

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cruelty of the Germans, an enemy that had to be destroyed for the good of civilisation. In France and Great Britain, the efforts to help refugees contributed to the mobilisation of the home front. The concern for the Belgian refugees was increased further by the fact that they were seen not only as the innocent victims of German brutality but also as the embodiment of the heroes who had dared to face up to them. What better way to pay tribute to the heroism of ‘Poor Little Belgium’ than to extend a warm welcome to its children? Helping became a moral as well as a

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