-American-Spanish relations as they intersect in Cuba in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. It then moves to a brief history of the major developments in Bildungsroman theory, from its roots in nineteenth-century German aesthetics through its twentieth-century adoption by Mikhail Bakhtin and the English critical tradition, and culminating in Franco Moretti's The Way of the World , which draws attention to the figurations of problematic youth that lie at the heart of the sub-genre.
A similar anxiety about youth animates the
the Duce purposefully sought to overcome the problem of creating an effigy by sublimating Mussolini’s presence
using signs, symbols and icons.
At the entrance of the complex stands Mussolini’s obelisk, erected in 1932,
behind which extends the mosaicked piazzale, completed to Luigi Moretti’s
design in May 1937 to mark the anniversary of the declaration of empire.
Conceived by Renato Ricci, the head of the ONB, the obelisk subsumed,
through a combination of narrative and design, the modern with the ancient,
and the earthly with the sublime, paying homage to the Duce
The idea of Bertelli overall as an isolated figure has arguably contributed to
his recent reappraisal since it could easily be read as a sign of his political noncommitment. Bertelli never became one of the official artists of the regime, but
this seems to me to have less to do with his conscious choice of isolation from
the public world and more to do, as suggested by Moretti, with the fact that the
Profilo was conceived from the beginning as a reproducible design object.52 In
a letter dated 1 December 1941, Bertelli asked Mussolini’s permission to
A worker reads history and a historian writes poetry
lifetime and ten volumes accounting for the tone, rhythm, and organisation of just one of them, if you were to adduce structure to historical
argument. All of this was the 1980s, when the exhortations of literary
theorists (literary historians? literary-historical theorists?) like Raymond
Williams and Franco Moretti were heeded. Williams eschewed the term
‘literature’, what with its high-cultural connotations of aesthetic value
and discrimination; he also eschewed ‘genre’ in favour of ‘form’. ‘Writing
3 Antoinette Blum, ‘The uses of literature in nineteenth and
Poems, p. 201.
32 Carolyn Steedman, ‘The Poetry of It (Writing History)’, Angelika Bammer and RuthEllen Joeres (eds), The Future of Scholarly Writing. Critical Interventions, Palgrave
Macmillan, New York NY, 2015, pp. 215–226.
33 ‘Historical thought was an essential element of almost every poem Auden wrote in 1955’.
Edward Mendelson, Later Auden, Faber and Faber, London, 1999, pp. 390–392.
34 The most succinct and resonant account of these processes, of heart and mind and
writing, remains Franco Moretti’s Way of the World. The Bildungsroman in European
it is almost always a he) successfully surmounts. Franco Moretti
clarifies the nature of such challenges: ‘lions, heat,
vegetation, elephants, flies, rain, illness and natives. All mixed up,
and at bottom all interchangeable in their function as
Many of the death poems certainly created a portrait of environmental
resistance in which Livingstone
historiography and literature, see Yolanda Rodríguez Pérez, The
Dutch Revolt through Spanish Eyes. Self and Other in Historical and Literary Texts of Golden Age Spain
(c.1548–1673) (Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang, 2008).
7 S. Moretti, ‘La trattatistica italiana e la guerra. Il conflitto tra la Spagna e le Fiandre (1566–
1609)’, Annali dell’Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, 20 (1994), 129–64; see also my
article: Cees Reijner, ‘Il mito dell’Olanda. Politiek en geschiedschrijving in vroegmodern
Italië’, Incontri, 30:2 (2015), 41–55.
8 Hispano-Habsburg troops were
Daily Worker, 2 June 1930, p. 4.
10 Workers’ Weekly, 20 June 1924, p. 6.
11 Workers’ Weekly, 14 December 1923, p. 2.
12 The Communist, 27 January 1923, p. 8.
13 Workers’ Weekly, 25 July 1924, p. 2. See also, Workers’ Weekly, 11 August 1923, p. 2.
14 Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital, in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works in One
Volume (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1968), p. 93.
15 Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1 (Harmondsworth: Penguin,
1976), p. 342.
16 Ibid., p.367.
17 Franco Moretti, Signs Taken For Wonders: Essays in the
homegrown heroes.61 Recall the scene from Nanni
Moretti’s film Aprile (1998): when Silvio Berlusconi wins the election, the 25
April memorial celebrations suddenly gain real relevance. The nation, as Emilio
Gentile reminds us in La grande Italia, only came back into view in the mid-
1990s.62 Berlusconi’s ascent to power in 1994 and the subsequent renewed interest
in Fascist strategies for suppressing dissent –and their contemporary correlatives –
changed the national discourse about internal exile yet again, offering a new
declension of the legacy of Fascism and an
Carothers, 21 September 1948.
See, for example, the case files of Allesandro
Moretti, MMH: EU.M.34/41; Umberto Pagano, MMH: EU.M.54/42; Vicenzio
Pinto, MMH: EU.M.40/41; Giuseppe Bartolini, MMH: EU.M.37/41.
McCulloch based his analysis on records