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Trevor Dean

One of the key elements of Philip Jones' interpretation of late medieval Italy is the importance attached to the feudal nobility and its chivalric values. This chapter deals with social groups and social tensions in Italy: popolo against magnates, noble clans against each another, men against women, young men against city elders, Christians against Jews, freemen against slaves, food riots and tax revolts, acts of resistance and indecency. Franco Cardini has argued that there were three major elements of noble lifestyle in Italy during the communal period: knighthood, towers and vendetta. The chapter focuses on these three elements. Although worker unrest is evident in Italian towns from the late thirteenth century, the second half of the fourteenth century saw a rash of working-class revolts, the most famous being that of the Ciompi in Florence has become the 'archetype' of worker insurrections.

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages