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Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

A new NATO 169 8 A new NATO The Great role of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. … Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns … ’Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent Alliances, with any portion of the foreign world. (George Washington)1 Summary The disappearance of the Soviet

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
The political and economic growth of a continent

This study interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe – including transatlantic relations – from the end of World War II up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. It weaves all the different strands of European events together into a single picture that gives the reader a deep understanding of the continent, and of its current and future challenges. The first chapters trace European reconstruction and political, economic and security developments – both in the East and in the West – leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Later chapters examine the European Union's reform efforts, enlargement, movement to a single currency and emerging security role; the political and economic changes in central and Eastern Europe, including Russia; the break up of Yugoslavia and the wars that ensued; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)'s enlargement and search for a new mission. Final chapters deal with forces affecting Europe's future, such as terrorism, nationalism, religion, demographic trends and globalisation.

Abstract only
Stanley R. Sloan

the general election to win the presidency, despite receiving close to three million fewer votes than his opponent, Hillary Clinton. During the campaign, Trump displayed his disdain for the European Union and for NATO as well, calling the transatlantic alliance “obsolete” and claiming that low levels of European defense spending meant that the Europeans had not been “paying their dues.” In one stunning attack on NATO, he suggested that the United States should not be willing to come to the defense of an ally that had not been spending enough on defense – this

in Transatlantic traumas
Chris Pearson

militarized environments, from German military bases in Occupied Europe to US military installations in East Anglia and the Pacific Ocean.2 If anything, the Cold War intensified this phenomenon, when US, NATO and Soviet bases dotted the globe, from Germany, Turkey, Panama, Spain, to Japan.3 Militarized environments took on a cosmopolitan and transnational character as foreign military bases became key features within the environmental histories of the Second World War and the Cold War.4 Foreign military installations were, and are, controversial sites. They 169

in Mobilizing nature
Stanley R. Sloan

Talking Turkey Since NATO’s inception, there has been a tension in the alliance as to what is necessary to provide for the common defense and what is required to translate the implicitly shared values of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law into national policies. This tension was illustrated early on when, due to the strategic importance of the Azores for US military access to Europe, Portugal was admitted to the alliance despite its autocratic dictatorship, later overturned by the massive Carnation Revolution. At various times since 1949

in Transatlantic traumas
Stanley R. Sloan

daily, as they crowded onto less than seaworthy vessels, having paid exorbitant fees to profiteering “entrepreneurs” who mostly abandoned them once afloat. The exodus continues, as do the accompanying tragedies, although the anti-ISIL coalition has been eliminating the group’s territorial grip in Iraq and Syria. NATO and EU responses The burden of dealing with this surge of asylum seekers fell first on the EU and NATO states along the northern rim of the Mediterranean, particularly Italy, Greece and Turkey. But as the numbers escalated, and Italy threatened to

in Transatlantic traumas
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

limits their scope. (Henry Kissinger)1 Summary As the EU and NATO enlarge, prospects for overall economic growth and peace are good, even if tensions both within and without the enlarged circle of EU and NATO member states could cloud the picture, as over Iraq in 2003. Prospects for peace and prosperity improved in South-Eastern Europe under a Stability Pact for the region, involving major international assistance. Continuing EU and NATO enlargement will mean an eastward shift of Europe’s ‘centre of gravity’, with a major role for Germany. That country is, however

in Destination Europe
Stanley R. Sloan

possible, as noted in the first chapter. NATO tolerated an undemocratic regime in Portugal and military juntas in Greece and Turkey, judging that it was more important to maintain a united front against the Soviet threat than to maintain internal liberal democratic purity. Today, the challenge is to do both: improve the West’s democratic systems and institutions to diminish the internal dissatisfaction that can give rise to illiberal tendencies supported by populist movements, while providing sufficiently strong defenses against external threats – in the contemporary

in Transatlantic traumas
Abstract only
Debating Cold War anxieties in West Germany, 1945–90
Benjamin Ziemann

NATO in December 1979 to offer negotiations between the superpowers over the mutual reduction of intermediate-range nuclear missiles, but to deploy 572 US Pershing II and cruise atomic missiles in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK in case these negotiations failed. In their collective obsession with the potential results of an all-out nuclear war, the angst-ridden people in West Germany were a crucial factor in the complicated negotiations that followed the dual-track decision. Richard Perle (who, as US undersecretary of defence from 1981 to 1987

in Understanding the imaginary war
Abstract only
Mervyn O’Driscoll

states were relegated to a secondary power status under the US defence umbrella. US-​backed trade liberalisation promoted growing Western European interdependence in the post-​war decade, while alliances (NATO, the Warsaw Pact and other pacts internationally) transformed global security. The first chancellor of the FRG, Konrad Adenauer, inherited an occupied and provisional state that was mistrusted by its neighbours because of its recent history and its strategic weight. He chose an unqualified Western orientation and adopted a policy of reconciliation and

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73