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Partnership for Peace (PfP) and a staggered admission process
James W. Peterson

Alliance theory is vital in comprehending the admission process to NATO, the key Western defense organization dating back to 1949 . The alliance offered a measure of reassurance to a Western world that was somewhat surprised by the eruption of an intense Cold War by the late 1940s. After the Cold War, the NATO alliance preconditions and requirements became a substitute

in Defending Eastern Europe
Joshua B. Spero

2504Chap9 7/4/03 12:41 pm Page 166 9 Paths to peace for NATO’s partnerships in Eurasia Joshua B. Spero This chapter examines the role of multilateral cooperative efforts and institutionalised security cooperation in the Eurasian area through a study of NATO’s PfP programme. In terms of measuring the capacity to increase Eurasian security, the general track record of the post-Cold War security institutions in non-traditional areas of societal democratisation, economic modernisation, civil and cross-border war prevention, and Eurasian integration presents a

in Limiting institutions?
Albania and Bulgaria
Ivan P. Nikolov
and
James W. Peterson

attack from within the region, and by a Balkan assassin on a member of the Austrian royal family. World War II as well as the communist period created a situation in which the region was torn by both local and outside forces. The answer to the opening question about why stability has now set in is related to a variety of factors. Both Bulgaria and Albania entered NATO in part because of wars in Afghanistan

in Defending Eastern Europe
The Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia
James W. Peterson
and
Jacek Lubecki

great joy at the recovery of this state treasure that had been accidently lost after the break-up of the Soviet Union and emergence of Ukraine as a nation-state in 1991. A second model of Russian behavior in 2014 was fear that the new Ukrainian leadership might push for or accept membership in NATO or the EU. In fact, the matter of admission to NATO had materialized in a serious way at the organization

in Defending Eastern Europe
James W. Peterson

of gravitational pull after the break-up. Efforts to restore control created war, suffering, and continuous instability for three intense years from 1992 to 1995. It was not a surprise that outside intervention by NATO was a significant factor in the end of the wars with the final, forced Serbian retreat. The 1999 struggle in Kosovo was very different as it involved Serbian intervention into its

in Defending Eastern Europe
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

ICRC held a roundtable in Geneva on ‘Translating humanitarian law into military tactics’. The aim was to consider how to conduct military operations within the limits of IHL and, in particular, to ponder appropriate, effective and yet legally acceptable rules of armed engagement. The four panellists included two military legal advisors (from NATO and the United States) and a colonel. While this may seem extremely cynical, the effort to better incorporate IHL into military

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Joël Glasman
and
Brendan Lawson

scale of the disaster, while host states have an interest in exaggerating the figures in order to increase financial support ( Crisp, 1986 ). Governments fudge humanitarian figures to justify military interventions. Here we can think of the way NATO justified their bombings using the figure of 100,000 Kosovar Albanians massacred by Serbs – a figure ten times higher than the reality ( Crisp, 1999 ). Humanitarian agencies themselves may have an interest in overestimating

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks
and
Rob Grace

: Hurst ). Mazurana , D. and Donnelly , P. ( 2017 ), Stop the Sexual Assault against Humanitarian and Development Aid Workers Feinstein International Center Somerville, MA . Médecins Sans Frontières International Movement ( 2013 ), Famine and Forced Relocations in Ethiopia 1984–1986 MSF Speaks Out . Médecins Sans Frontières International Movement ( 2014a ), Violence against Kosovar Albanians, NATO’s Intervention 1998–1999 MSF Speaks Out . Médecins Sans Frontières International Movement ( 2014b ), War Crimes and Politics

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Irina Mützelburg (October 2022)
Brendan Lawson
,
Joël Glasman
, and
Irina Mützelburg

Дмитро Лубінець] ’, 3 September, https://ukrainian.voanews.com/a/ombudsman_lubinets_interview/6729554.html . Washington Post ( 2022a ), ‘ Russia Could Seize Kyiv in Days and Cause 50,000 Civilian Casualties in Ukraine, U.S. Assessments Find ’, 5 February, www.washingtonpost.com/world/2022/02/05/ukraine-russia-nato-putin-germany/ . Washington Post

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The defense policies of new NATO and EU member states

This book blends analysis of Eastern European security needs, foreign threats, domestic political events, and public opinion, in theoretical ways to understand how they lead to future defense postures and commitments for each country in the region. How has NATO and EU membership improved their overall regional defense protection, and what ingredients are still missing for them on an individual state basis? Separate chapters treat clusters of states that make up the various regions of Eastern Europe. For example, the three threatened Baltic states in the north will receive careful analysis. Second, the complex array of states in the Balkan area of Southeastern Europe merit examination, for their security conditions have been quite varied and diverse. For some, NATO and EU membership has become a reality, and for others that possibility does not yet exist. Third, three of the four geographically central states were the ones that first gained full membership in NATO at the earliest possible moment in 1999. At present, Poland in the north has perceived clear threats from Russia since 2014, while the three other East-Central European states possess greater sense of security.