The scientific study of Egyptian mummies, initial phase, 1973–79
A pioneering team of academics, medical consultants and scientists was brought together by Rosalie David in 1973 to scientifically investigate Egyptian artefacts and mummies in the Manchester Museum collection. In addition, an inadequately documented mummy in poor condition (Mummy 1770) was selected to be unwrapped and investigated internally. Several new scientific techniques were to be utilised in these studies including computer tomography (CAT scanning), electron microscopy (TEM, SEM and analytical EM) and radiocarbon dating. In addition, established techniques were also used, such as histological examination of mummified tissues to look for evidence of disease, conventional X-ray examination, dental studies, fingerprinting, entomological and parasitological studies, analysis of the textiles used to wrap mummies and reconstruction of skulls and faces. The recreated facial features of Mummy 1770 was one of the highlights of the project and this was undoubtedly due to the skills of team-member Richard Neave. As little was known about the exact process of mummification, some experimental mummification processes were tried on dead laboratory rats and mice. This initial phase of the Manchester Mummy project lasted from 1973 until 1979 and overall it was a great success giving many new insights into ancient Egyptian life, diseases and customs. The results of the various investigations were published in scientific papers, several books and a number of films (including one for the BBC Chronicle series). Sadly, it is unlikely that all aspects of this project could be repeated today, particularly using NHS facilities.
radiographers can concentrate on optimising
the image quality.
All the imaging of mummies has taken place out of hours in the various
radiology departments in the Central Manchester University Hospital NHS
Foundation Trusts, and we ensure that the sessions never interfere with clinical
imaging of patients. Initially the imaging took place in the adult department of
the Manchester Royal Infirmary, where there are two CT scanners. However,
with the increasing clinical demand for CT in adults, which required an extension of routine CT working hours from 8.00 a.m. to 8.00 p
Manchester Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust for their
time, expertise and support over the years; and to the KNH Charitable Trust,
the Leverhulme Trust and the Wellcome Trust for financial support. Finally, we
owe a huge debt of gratitude to Professor Rosalie David for her immeasurable
support of the animal project, among others, and for pioneering the multidisciplinary study of ancient Egyptian mummified remains at Manchester.
Chhem, R. K. and Brothwell, D. R. (2008), Paleoradiology: Imaging Mummies and Fossils
David, A. R
appears to have been largely peaceful.
For the first time since the New Kingdom Egypt controlled vassal states in the
Levant which contributed taxes to Egypt.57
Psamtek died in 610 BC and his death may have occurred beyond the
borders of Egypt. A Demotic papyrus58 preserves a tradition that a King ‘Psamtek’
died in the lands east of NAy-w-aAm-pA-nHs. It would seem likely that the Psamtek
referred to is the first king of this name as there is later textual evidence for the
deaths of both Psamtek II and Psamtek III.59 The location of NAy-w-aAm-pA-nHs
is possibly a
Pluralism and the politics of change in Canada’s national museums
Ruth B. Phillips
Diversity in Canada’,
cfm. Accessed 7 March 2017. The figure for Toronto refers to the Greater
Toronto Area. See ‘Toronto Facts’, ‘Diversity’, www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/
Accessed 14 August 2016.
24 L. Althusser, ‘Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards
an Investigation)’, in Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays, trans. by Ben
Brewster (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971), p. 143.
25 Ibid., 147–9.
26 See J. Hines