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Counter-power in photography from slavery to Occupy Wall Street

world created and sustained by slavery. The prison would have housed runaways and otherwise disobedient slaves because Brazilian slavery used state mechanisms for punishment, unlike North America. European artists visiting Brazil often depicted enslaved Africans being beaten in prison, as seen in drawings by Augustus Earle (1821–​24) and Charles Landseer (1825–​26) (Honour 1989, 143). Florence’s experiments in visual form included a version of photocopying and extensive ethnographic illustration, especially of the Bororo people from what is now called the Mato Grosso

in Image operations
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, performance art – which encompasses a range of genres, among them body art, happenings, actions and performance – developed in Eastern Europe in parallel and in dialogue with practices in Western Europe and North America, despite its exclusion from the canon of that history. There were several ways in which this occurred. Artists from Eastern Europe were creating their own forms of performance art, but they also travelled to the West and, conversely, artists from the West travelled to the East; at times, artists from East and West encountered one another and their works at

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960
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of state-sponsored socialism in Eastern Europe and its presumption of gender equality, what they share is the use of performance art – not necessarily as their primary practice, but certainly in individual works – to address such issues as gender inequality, the objectification of women and the rigidity of traditional gender roles. Performance art was a preferred genre among feminist artists in North America during the 1960s and 1970s – a time of political activism, when such work was embraced as a platform by both male and female artists. One of the reasons that

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960
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Anish Kapoor as British/Asian/artist

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Homi Bhabha and Edward Said, who interrogated the centre/margin dichotomy. Throughout the 1990s, Kapoor’s artworks were exhibited in roughly a dozen group exhibitions each year, as well as numerous international art biennials, all largely in Europe and North America. He was also given a series of solo exhibitions during this period.33 By the early part of the twenty-first century, Kapoor had created a number of large site-specific artworks, including Sky Mirror at Rockefeller Plaza in New York City (2006), Marsyas at Tate Modern in London

in Productive failure

artists in Western Europe and North America. Ana Dević writes that in Croatia, ‘no examples can be found within the activities of the so-called New Artistic Practice of institutional critique similar to that in the West’, and Bojana Pejić similarly maintains that institutional critique of the type we are familiar with in the West is not usually associated with performance art in Eastern Europe.6 Likewise, Gregor Tomc states that ‘because of an absence of an art market, art in the East has referred to itself and has used its own language’.7 However, it is my belief that

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960
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1 Sources and origins Thank god for the so-called Iron Curtain … this perfect isolation meant that we did not degenerate as swiftly or as tragically as the rest of Europe. There, art became titillation, a delicacy, a topic of conversation. Our activities are not experimental art, but necessary activity. – Milan Knížák, 1966 Pre-history In Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, Roselee Goldberg outlines the development of performance in Western Europe and North America, pointing to its origins in Futurism and Dada in the early years of the twentieth

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960
Representing Africans and Afro-Creoles in the Anglo-American world

’s timeless, picturesque Caribbean Arcadias and Belisario’s modern, urban Kingston. His pictures of black West Indians are firmly rooted in their historical present, depicting a world far from both paradise and London, a world very much engaged in the messy transition from tropical wilderness to colonial outpost. After situating these images within the context of British colonial painting in the Caribbean, I discuss Brunias’s Handkerchief Dance on the Island of Dominica relative to two examples from North America, an unknown artist’s eighteenth-century watercolour known as

in Colouring the Caribbean

only for the construction of jail houses and courts’.19 In North America, where timber was often plentiful, the wooden stockade fort with ditches was generally the norm. Such stockades were to be found everywhere, defending traders against indigenous First Nation or Native American peoples, and in the far north, the Inuit. Such forts continued to provide their military function right down to the later nineteenth century. As in the Caribbean, others were designed for protection against rival imperial powers. The fortifications at 56 Militarisation, mobility and the

in The British Empire through buildings
A genteel life in trade

, ‘Introduction’, in John Styles and Amanda Vickery (eds), Gender, taste and material culture in Britain and North America, 1700–​1830 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 16. 34 Ibid., p. 14. 35 Lawrence Klein, ‘Politeness for plebes: some social identities in early eighteenth-​ century England’, in Ann Bermingham and John Brewer (eds), The consumption of culture:  word, image, and object in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (London: Routledge, 1995), p. 373. 36 Ibid., p. 364. 37 Bushman, The refinement of America, p. xvi. 38 Ann Bermingham

in Building reputations
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Style, taste and the business of decoration

. Although largely absent from the admittedly limited literature on eighteenth-​ century interior decoration in Ireland, Robbins’s professional milieu in fact placed him among the progenitors of the neoclassical movement in Dublin. Wellford, on the other hand, has recently been the subject of a monograph which unambiguously underlines his role as a pivotal figure for the development of the Federal style across British North America. Just as design histories have problematized traditional ‘trickle down’ theories of reception and emulation, so the introduction of new and

in Building reputations