The NorthAmerican theatre
NorthAmerica was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in
which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. The activation of the
transatlantic human transfusions was a vast project and many of its origins
remain a mystery. But it began as a largely English venture.
Mostly, the story of the peopling of America is told as variants on the theme
of the dispeopling of old Europe: it is told conventionally as the ‘uprooting’ or
the ‘transplanting’ of Europe’s poor and wretched. This fits in well with
The presence of the Church of England
in NorthAmerica offers an interesting case study of the later Stuart
church, where some of the issues and problems encountered by the church in
Old England were transplanted to British NorthAmerica, but also where the
radically different religious, political, and socio-cultural contexts across
the Atlantic threw up new challenges for the church. This chapter will focus
Irish diaspora Catholicism in
In their global faiths as in their insular polities, the experiences of the
Irish at home entailed a series of unstable ‘identities’ to ease relations
with others. This was so despite their obligation of due deference to
political authority, regardless of those exercising it. The search for
status and prestige imposed choreography of positioning in social life
which weakened any consistent outward witness to Catholic values.
Impoverished political identities exacerbated this, regardless of their
Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.
Between 1921 and 1965, Irish and Scottish migrants continued to seek new homes abroad. This book examines the experience of migration and settlement in North America and Australasia. It goes beyond traditional transnational and diasporic approaches, usually focused on two countries, and considers a range of destinations in which two migrant groups settled. The book aims to reclaim individual memory from within the broad field of collective memory to obtain 'glimpses into the lived interior of the migration processes'. The propaganda relating to emigration emanating from both Ireland and Scotland posited emigration as draining the life-blood of these societies. It then discusses the creation of collective experiences from a range of diverse stories, particularly in relation to the shared experiences of organising the passage, undertaking the voyage out, and arriving at Ellis Island. The depiction at the Ellis Island Museum is a positive memory formation, emphasising the fortitude of migrants. Aware that past recollections are often shaped by contemporary concerns, these memories are also analysed within the broader context in which remembering takes place. The book then examines migrant encounters with new realities in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada. The formal nature of ethnic and national identities for Irish and Scottish migrants, as exhibited by language, customs, and stereotypes, is also explored. The novelty of alleged Irish and Scottish characteristics emphasised in accounts presumably goes some way to explaining the continued interest among the children of migrants. These ongoing transnational connections also proved vital when migrants considered returning home.
The Colonial Police Service was created in 1936 in order to standardise all imperial police forces and mould colonial policing to the British model. This book is the first comprehensive study of the colonial police and their complex role within Britain's long and turbulent process of decolonisation, a time characterised by political upheaval and colonial conflict. The emphasis is on policing conflict rather than the application of British law and crime-fighting in an imperial context. The overlapping between the Irish-colonial and Metropolitan-English policing models was noticeable throughout the British Empire. The policing of Canada where English and Irish styles of policing intermingled, in particular after 1867 when Canada became a nation in its own right with the passage of the British North America Act. Inadequate provisions for the localisation of gazetted officers within most colonies prior to independence led to many expatriates being asked to remain in situ. Post-war reform included the development of police special branches, responsible for both internal and external security. From the British Caribbean to the Middle East, the Mediterranean to British Colonial Africa and on to Southeast Asia, colonial police forces struggled with the unrest and conflict that stemmed from Britain's withdrawal from its empire. A considerable number of them never returned to Britain, settling predominantly in Kenya, South Africa, Australia and Canada. Policing the immediate postcolonial state relied on traditional colonial methods. The case of the Sierra Leone Police is revealing in a contemporary context.
; but in 1820 the United Kingdom was
close, uncomfortably so, to the revolutionary mood of the continent.
1 Fred Donnelly, ‘A Cato Street Conspirator in NorthAmerica’, Labour History Review,
78:1 (2013), 127–30.
2 M. Chase, ‘The People’s Farm’: English Radical Agrarianism, 1775–1840 (Oxford, 1988),
3 Boot and Shoemaker, 14 June–6 Sept. 1879.
4 P. Benton, The History of Rochford Hundred (Rochford, 1867), p. 343.
5 Donnelly, ‘A Cato Street Conspirator’, p. 129; Hampshire Telegraph and Sussex Chronicle,
7 Sept. 1829.
6 Rémi Gossez (ed.), Un
‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain
courts of justice and not
invalidated because their customs prevented them from taking an
The model laws had a particular relevance in British NorthAmerica where Governor-General Lord Sydenham was being asked to advise
on future relations between settlers and Indigenous people. He had few
precedents to follow in undertaking this difficult task. To Indigenous
Nineteenth-century German literature and indigenous representations
and Oliver Simons have argued, the idea
of America in the German consciousness was first realised through literary sources
that transformed frontier experiences into a conceptual language that spoke to
metropolitan concerns. 1 Despite their
frontier topos, these writings were inherently internalist; focusing on German
histories, politics and intellectual questions, with little regard for the affairs
of indigenous peoples in NorthAmerica save for where they
Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.