The Dunsoete Agreement and daily life in the Welsh borderlands
societies could of course vary widely, as David Abulafia has usefully
outlined in the introduction to his and Nora Berend’s collection, Medieval
Frontiers: Concepts and Practices.53 Yet, as Daniel Power explains in the introduction to his and Naomi Standen’s important volume Frontiers in Question:
Eurasian Borderlands, 700-1700, the term ‘frontier’ holds two distinct meanings in British and NorthAmerican English. In British English, a frontier
has been a ‘political barrier between states or peoples, often militarised’
while in NorthAmerica the concept has come to mean
, citing B. Conklin and L. Morgan, ‘Babies, Bodies, and the Production of Personhood in NorthAmerica and a Native Amazonian Society’, Ethos , 24:4 (1996), 657–84, at 657–8.
29 Dieter Neubert and Günther Cloerkes, Behinderung und Behinderte in verschiedenen Kulturen. Eine vergleichende Analyse ethnologischer Studien (Heidelberg: Edition Schindele, 2nd, edn 1994), 44, and 109n9 cites the example of C. H. Hawes, In the Uttermost East (London: Harper, 1903), 250 who variously refers to one and the same individual as an idiot and as a madman
Chaucer in the nineteenth-century popular consciousness
the Chaucerian uncanny’, in Prendergast, Chaucer’s Dead Body: From
Corpse to Corpus (New York: Routledge, 2004), pp. 71–84; ‘The tomb
of Chaucer’, The Times (25 August 1845), p. 6.
25 ‘The restoration of Chaucer’s monument’, Lady’s Newspaper (29 June
1850), p. 359.
26 ‘Chaucer and the Exhibition’, Liverpool Mercury (14 June 1851), n.p.
27 Lawrence Horne, ‘To Chaucer’, London Pioneer (23 September 1847),
28 James Russell Lowell, ‘Chaucer’, Boston Daily Advertiser (24 January
29 ‘Prof. Coppee’s lectures’, NorthAmerican and United States
century was one born out of the social sciences and ‘new social history’. We have already noted the introduction by G.C. Homans of a sociological approach to the study of the medieval English peasantry, and it is evident that Homans’s efforts sowed a seed in the work of the generation that followed him, especially in NorthAmerica. In Toronto, J. Ambrose Raftis and his students employed sociological techniques, in particular, in describing and examining social structure as revealed by the available historical material, in this instance the manorial court rolls from the
, this volume also remains largely grounded in NorthAmerican discourses of Old English studies.
Of course, Beowulf itself also dramatizes and enacts these charges that render intimacy noticeable as a critical question. The poem presents many versions of arrivals and departures, losses and discoveries. Sometimes its guests are welcome, and sometimes they reveal the precarity of the most supposedly intimate of spaces: homes; sleeping chambers; and sites of parenting, friendship, and romantic love. There are the halls of men and the homes of figures
Strayer’s life and work, see Norman F. Cantor, Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works, and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth Century (New York, 1991), pp. 245–50, 257–63, 277–85; and Paul Freedman and Gabrielle M. Spiegel, ‘Medievalisms Old and New: The Rediscovery of Alterity in NorthAmerican Medieval Studies’, American Historical Review, 103 (1998), 677–704, esp. 682, 686–90. Freedman and Spiegel do not discuss Strayer’s emphasis on laicisation, although the attention he paid to this topic, like others he treated, clearly reveals his ‘desire
/ And Agamemnon dead’ (‘Leda and the Swan’). Elizabeth Smart writes, ‘Jupiter has been with Leda … and now nothing can avert the Trojan War’, confident that at least some of her readers will get the allusion to the engendering of Helen.
Marlowe's ‘topless towers of Ilion’ are still burning in twenty-first-century NorthAmerica. But Heorot? Hrothulf? Halga? What have Heoroweard or Heorogar to do with us? We have heard of Myrmidons and Priam, but not of Spear-Danes or Hrothgar. The sentence ‘Halga has been with Yrsa
See Anna Birgitta Rooth, The Raven and the
Carcass: An Investigation of a Motif in the Deluge Myth in
Europe, Asia and NorthAmerica (Helsinki, 1962 ).
See E. G. Kraeling, ‘Xisouthros, Deucalion
and the Flood-Traditions’, Journal of the American Oriental
Society , 67 ( 1947
The Dindshenchas Érenn and a national poetics of space
Amy C. Mulligan
Tradition 1/2 (1986), 273. See also Donncha Ó hAodha,
‘The First Irish Metrical Tract’, in Hildegard Tristram (ed.),
Metrik und Medienwechsel / Metrics and Media (Tübingen: Narr, 1991),
The phrase is that of Proinsias Mac Cana, ‘Placenames
and Mythology in Irish Tradition: Places, Pilgrimages and Things’, in Gordon
MacLennan (ed.), Proceedings of the First NorthAmerican Congress of Celtic Studies (Ottawa: Chair of Celtic Studies
reliance on manorial court rolls rather than account rolls, as significant in determining the direction of research, the former directing researchers more obviously towards interaction within the village than would manorial accounts, with their focus on the demesne and the seigneurial obligations of the peasants, or more particularly the tenantry.
While, then, some studies of the medieval English peasantry, especially those associated with the new social historical approaches emanating from NorthAmerica in the first decades after the Second