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The same-sex unions revolution, its past and future

revolution since 1989, I use the final two sections of the chapter to speculate about its future. First, I examine the increasing international focus on opening marriage to same-sex couples and explore the extent to which the international SSU norm is being transformed into one that defines marriage as the only appropriate form of same-sex relationship recognition. Second, I briefly examine the spread of the SSU norm outside of North America and Western Europe and highlight both the similarities and differences of the policy discourses that have resulted from the

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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Towards a new philosophy of political legitimacy

Since the Enlightenment, liberal democrat governments in Europe and North America have been compelled to secure the legitimacy of their authority by constructing rational states whose rationality is based on modern forms of law. The first serious challenge to liberal democratic practices of legal legitimacy comes in Karl Marx's early writings on Rousseau and Hegel. Marx discovers the limits of formal legal equality that does not address substantive relations of inequality in the workplace and in many other spheres of social life. This book investigates the authoritarianism and breakdown of those state socialist governments which claim to put Marx's ideas on democracy and equality into practice. It offers an immanent critique of liberalism, and discusses liberal hegemony, attacking on liberalism from supposedly post-liberal political positions. Liberalism protects all individuals by guaranteeing a universally enforceable form of negative liberty which they can exercise in accordance with their own individual will. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy both affirms and limits human agency through the media of rationality and legality. The conditions of liberal reason lay the groundwork for the structure of individual experience inside the liberal machine. The book also shows how a materialist reformulation of idealist philosophy provides the broad outlines of a theory of critical idealism that bears directly upon the organisation of the labour process and the first condition of legitimate law concerning humanity and external nature. Mimetic forms of materialism suggest that the possibilities for non-oppressive syntheses and realities are bound up with a libertarian union of intellect.

Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

New stories on rafted ice

continents. In the North American Arctic and Greenland, the archaeological record and Inuit oral histories document occupation by the mysterious Tuniit people, who are understood to have been distinct from New stories on rafted ice     21 and displaced by a twelfth-​/​thirteenth-​century migration of Inuit from Eurasia and Alaska (McGhee, 2006). The migration and success of the Inuit people over a wide range of territory that came to be encompassed by the emerging Russian, Canadian, American and Danish states were later a key element underlining the regional nature of the

in Arctic governance
International socialisation across the pond?

in which international influences have shaped these movements or their campaigns for policy change. Yet international norm cascades, especially those that involve high-profile human rights issues, rarely remain strictly regional in nature and western democracies have been particularly receptive to sharing policy ideas. Thus while it is unlikely that the SSU norm has had the same impact on the two North American countries that it has had in Western Europe, there is also good reason to suspect that the relationship recognition debates that have been conducted in the

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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The globalisation of an idea

_Tonra 01 03/12/2012 12:41 Page 69 Same-sex unions: the globaisation of an idea Table 4.1—National SSU policy in Western Europe and North America, 2011 Marriage Registered partnership Unregistered partnership No recognition Netherlands (2001) Belgium (2003) Canada (2005) Spain (2005) Norway (2009) Sweden (2009) Portugal (2010) Iceland (2010) Denmark (1989) Netherlands (1979)* Greece Norway (1993–2009) Sweden (1988)* Italy Sweden (1995–2009) Canada (2000) United States Iceland (1996) Portugal (2001) Greenland (1996) Austria (2003) Netherlands (1998) France (1999

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
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Theorising Arctic hierarchies

as the regional ‘great powers’. Largely, the interviewees shared the aim of working to bring these two states more actively into the Arctic cooperative fold rather than seeking to counterbalance their influence. One North American interviewee noted in 2007 that this was one of the motivations for giving these two countries chairmanships so early in the life of the Arctic Council organisation to ‘bring these countries further into the activities of the Arctic Council’. Another Norwegian interviewee urged that Arctic Council participants work hard to angle projects

in Arctic governance
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arguments in support of the currently dominant models of democratic humanism and coerced reconciliation which continue to be enforced in Europe and North America. The urgency of relaunching the Enlightenment project on new bases seems especially urgent today, when the oil and arms clique in charge of the government of the United States at the time of this writing seems to be determined to impose unstable versions of these models on the rest of the

in Beyond hegemony
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–2016 (Albertslund: Samvirke, 2016), pp. 13–16. 15 P. Teeboom, ‘Searching for the Middle Way: Consumer Co-operation and the Co-operative Movement in New Deal America’ (PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam, 2009); E. Furlough and C. Strikwerda, ‘Economics, Consumer Culture and Gender: An Introduction to the Politics of Consumer Co-operation’, in E. Furlough and C. Strikwerda (eds), Consumers against Capitalism? Consumer Conclusion 169 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Co-operation in Europe, North America and Japan, 1840–1990 (Lanham: Rowman

red and blue that could bring Chinese goods to European and North American markets in the rapidly warming Arctic. These broader representations of the Arctic are well analysed in the literature, with key sources of empirics coming from photography, film, mapping, and broad policy narratives and media representations (Powell and Dodds, 2014; Steinberg et al, 2015). While the broad strokes of how the region can be framed and is represented have been well examined, we still need to know more about how these frames are brought to bear on the political practice of

in Arctic governance