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Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

on two aspects of the church’s North American experience which both complicated and extended its role as it had developed in the home country. First, the place of the church in North America was very dissimilar from its position in England. Even in those colonies where it was established, the church in America lacked the massive apparatus of bishops, dioceses, archdeaconries, and church courts which had been crucial to its functioning

in The later Stuart Church, 1660–1714
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fact of exile often witnessed the weakening of the link with Catholicism. Some Irish churchmen such as Cardinal Cullen saw in emigration a sort of panacea for Ireland’s ills in the mid-nineteenth century, while bishops in places as far apart as London and Toronto saw the other side and warned of its dangers as the Irish appeared over-represented in the criminal classes of the host countries. In Chapter 12, David Doyle examines in particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish

in Irish Catholic identities
Open Access (free)

believed that Lamming articulated his own North American experience. In the Castle of My Skin was followed by The Emigrants (1954), Of Age and Innocence (1958), Season of Adventure (1960), and his collection of essays The Pleasures of Exile (1960), all of which were written in London, and all of which were inspired by the predicament of colonial subjugation. His

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Consumer research and the mass-market housewife

Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. The classic work on the North American experience is S. Strasser, Never Done: A History of American Housework, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. 11 See also the work of Michel Callon and his co-authors on the material devices of consumption for a similar approach to the ‘making up’ of the consumer. In particular, M. Callon, C. Meadal and V. Rabeharisoa, ‘The economy of qualities’, Economy Nixon_HardSell_Final.indd 90 18/04/2013 18:40 Understanding ordinary women 91

in Hard sell

, ‘North American experience and British missionary encounters in Africa and the Pacific, c . 1800–1850’ in Martin Daunton and Rick Halpern (eds), Empire and Others: British Encounters with Indigenous Peoples, 1600–1850 (London 1999), pp. 354–5. 58 Botha, Fairbairn , p. 66

in The Scots in South Africa

from the 1950s to plan and analyse the economic development of ‘third-world’ societies, often former colonies. Such specialists used models of ‘development’ which often assumed that it was appropriate to apply the ‘successful’ model of European and north American experience to those societies – an assumption which was questioned from the 1970s. This influenced DeGroot.indd 245 15/07/2013 10:23:31 246 • empire and history writing in britain  • the work of historians who transferred such models back to their work on the European and north American past. They

in Empire and history writing in Britain c.1750–2012