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Abstract only
Fabian Graham

the cosmology upon which contemporary ritual practices are based. To achieve this, what have previously been regarded as conflicting approaches in the study of Chinese vernacular religion have been embraced. These include ontological and dialogic 5 approaches to religious phenomena including tang-ki in trance possession states, combined with historical sociology and an interpretative societal analysis. The rationale behind adopting these methodologies and how they become complementary requires elucidation. While there has been a

in Voices from the Underworld
Fabian Graham

and information exchanges between myself and tang-ki both in and out of trance possession states and, by extension, with their temples’ communities. In the process, the boundaries between being an observer and a participant in the participant observation paradigm became malleable, providing close proximity access to, and often experiential knowledge of, the rituals performed. Central to this was the incorporation of an underlying ontological approach to religious phenomena, an approach supported by the universality of spiritual traditions both historically and

in Voices from the Underworld
Abstract only
A world of difference
Morny Joy

ontological transformation of existence, that is, of the way that we inhabit the world (186).The crucial term for Heidegger in this new ontology is Gelassenheit or, as it is often translated, ‘letting be’ (189).This phrase indicates a way of being that does not subscribe to western rationality’s preference for absolutist principles with its binary divisions, especially those of metaphysics. Huntington then indicates that the basis of Heidegger’s new orientation is an affirmative recuperation of the term ‘fantasia’, which is posited as at once both creative and critical.5

in Divine love
Irigaray and Mary Daly
Morny Joy

otherness to which women have been consigned by what both specify as the patriarchal tradition. The future perfect tense also reclaims their own absent o/Other, according to a new constellation of ontology and transcendence. This reversal, or transvaluation of otherness, signals an attainment of a social independence and personal fulfilment for women in ways that reject a male God figure and his legitimation of women’s inferiority (Daly 1974: 19–22; Irigaray 1985a [1974]: 330–1), as well as the sacrificial demands of patriarchal religions (Daly 1974: 2–3; Irigaray1993b

in Divine love
Evading theology in Macbeth
James R. Macdonald

never offers the audience a clear understanding of the Sisters, instead ‘staging the epistemological and ontological dilemmas that in the deeply contradictory ideological situation of his time haunted virtually all attempts to determine the status of witchcraft beliefs and practices’.4 I would suggest that the play presents two distinct but interlocking epistemological struggles, one that centers on classification (as Macbeth and Banquo attempt to determine what kind of beings the Sisters are) and subsequently one of definition (as the characters  143 Evading

in Forms of faith
Morny Joy

Irigaray will accord the special characteristic of the new, of the extraordinary, that stimulates wonder. ‘This other, male or female, should surprise us again and again, appear to us as new, very different from what we knew or what we thought he or she could be’ (74). For Irigaray there must be two sexes to interact in pluralistic ways that witness to a new ontology. Wonder and mystery are essential components of this ontology As Irigaray attests in the opening essay of An Ethics of Sexual Difference: ‘Who or what the other is, I never know. But the other who is forever

in Divine love
Irigaray and Hegel
Morny Joy

of this natural identity for a distinct ontological difference for women. ‘[T] here is no more "natural immediacy". I am a sexed ontological and ontic being, hence assigned to a gender ... each gender must define and retain mediations appropriate to it’ (107).20 Unfortunately, the culture into which women have been born was not supportive of a such a female ontological identity. According to Irigaray, the task of women today is: ‘a matter of demanding a culture, of wanting and elaborating a spirituality, a subjectivity and an alterity appropriate to this gender

in Divine love
Abstract only
Emmanuel Levinas and Irigaray
Morny Joy

Heidegger’s Being and Time, and considers Heidegger ‘the greatest philosopher of the [twentieth] century’, he can never forget Heidegger’s affiliation with the National Socialist Party in 1933. It is only Heidegger’s early rethinking of ontology that impressed Levinas.3 Levinas worked without scholarly prominence for many years and it is only in the last thirty-five years that his work has received acclaim in Britain and North America. It is now being mined for insights to help formulate a new orientation to ethics. Levinas wishes to reclaim a metaphysical position that

in Divine love
Morny Joy

touching and being touched at the same time. She questions the ontological status of the other person, of the one who is touching him (157). All too often this other is a woman – not necessarily erased like the mother, but ignored in men’s selfreferential reflections on reality. From Irigaray’s perspective, both of these omissions have to be repaired if women are to take their proper place in the world. Irigaray investigates different aspects of imaginative (re-) productions that would encourage women’s participation. Her first inquiry concerns the viability of

in Divine love
Morny Joy

moves beyond simply the imaginative to a more spiritually apologetic mode of writing. It will also examine Irigaray’s work in the light of recent discussions of Orientalism. Imaginative explorations In her essay ‘Divine Women’ (1993b: 57–72) Irigaray first advocated that women begin to explore ways of becoming divine, so as to counteract centuries of 124 Irigaray's eastern excursion a God made in the image of men. To become divine for women implies a fulfilment by a woman of the potentialities of her being (116–17). For Irigaray, ontologically this involves a mode

in Divine love