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Andrew Balmer and Anne Murcott

is the difference between academic and non-academic sources. Non-academic writing would include, say, a party political manifesto, or a news article by a journalist investigating MPs making inappropriate expenses claims. These materials could certainly feature as data in an academic source, for example in a study of the role of political advisers or of white-collar crime, but they are not academic sources themselves. The difference is between documents which represent data – primary sources – and the academic studies – secondary sources – of those documents which

in The craft of writing in sociology
Helen Brooks and Penny Bee

findings of the study will be disseminated to interested parties. 130 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 130 11/05/2018 16:16 study participants the public health professionals health care managers and policy makers Commissioning organisations (e.g. NHS England) External Organisations (e.g. NICE and the Department of Health) A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Key audiences implicated in this process usually include: Other researchers and academics 131 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 131 11/05/2018 16:16 Each of these audiences may be

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Abstract only
Andrew Balmer and Anne Murcott

which can lead to people becoming friends. In addition it is important to note that friendships can be one-sided and may not be reciprocated by one party, and can represent bad experiences in some cases (Davies, 2011: 82). [Quotation from a second-year sociology student’s essay] This paragraph moves the student’s argument forward by introducing a new proposition in the first sentence, namely that friendships are not necessarily chosen in the way we tend to think. The student cites a source in the academic literature and provides a direct quotation

in The craft of writing in sociology
Abstract only
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

Pearce, Diamond and Bream ( 2003 ) note that collaborative working exposes you to contrasting communication styles, working practices and temperaments. Miller ( 2014 ) highlights problems of language and communication as well as the need to acknowledge the contributions of all parties (examples abound of artworks attributed only to the artist, with no acknowledgement of the involvement and input of scientist or engineer). Some of these differences are differences between individuals and so might be encountered in any type of collaboration or team working, but some

in Creative research communication
Abstract only
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

‘upstream’. This relates to claims made by some academics and other interested parties (Wilsdon and Willis, 2004 ) that the ideal scenario for engagement with research is not at the stage of outcomes, but far earlier in the process, when the purpose, principles and priorities of research are being debated and before significant funding commitments have been made. In addition, for many researchers, approaches to engagement may already be intrinsic to the long-established methods which they themselves use in their research processes. Here engagement is not a separate part

in Creative research communication
Andrew C. Grundy

involvement is the perspective of different team members, and the different skills, assumptions, values and priorities that each of them brings. Acknowledging and working with these different perspectives is precisely what makes PPI so valuable, but it can also be what limits its success. Effective PPI requires that equal respect is afforded to academic and patient and public researchers, that the perspectives of both parties are equally valued, and that the team as a whole develops and maintains a shared language and goal. It is also important that PPI opportunities are

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Andrew Balmer and Anne Murcott

described (the technical term) by an adjective that adds some feature or quality attributable to the noun in question, often, but not always, by placing it beforehand: ‘young child’, ‘large households’ and ‘quantitative method’. Types of noun can be grouped; the two most relevant for writing essays are, perhaps, proper nouns and common nouns. The first refers to unique things, places or people, and are spelled with an initial capital 13 (as well as sometimes consisting of more than one word): for example, Manchester, Marx, the Conservative Party. All the others are, as

in The craft of writing in sociology
Abstract only
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

you are likely to have to make some early decisions about the operating system you will use for your projects (Teacher et al. , 2013 ). This may depend on which platforms are most popular in your geographical region, if you are interested in local or national reach. While there are tools available that allow you to create your own app, for most researchers constructing an app or game related to their research is likely to involve third parties with technical expertise in order to produce high-quality user experiences. The large number of games and apps now

in Creative research communication
Abstract only
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

consent from another party should not stop you from still explaining the information around the project to the participants (Hoggarth and Comfort, 2010 ). Whilst a consent form provides written evidence of consent, you should allow time for people to ask questions and discuss the form or information sheet with you (Smith Iltis, 2006 ) so that they have an opportunity to fully understand their participation. Case study 11.2 Ethics and older people Helena Wythe experienced some challenges when working with a vulnerable group as part of her

in Creative research communication
Abstract only
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

parties, are not add-ons to academic research, but a simple reflection of the passion that underpins it.’ The personal writing style of most blogs means that the author’s presence can often be easily seen (making them high on social presence) and this in turn can make research seem more human and less abstract, although authors may wish to consider how much of their personality they disclose. Blogs may be seen as a route to communicate with a broad, public audience, and even as opportunities to enter into debates about emerging scientific and social issues (see

in Creative research communication