represented ‘the first systematic rollback of fundamental
freedoms since the collapse of the USSR’.
The discourse of securitisation was evident throughout the process of
passing the 1997 law. Just before the voting on the second and third
readings in June 1997, Patriarch Aleksii II told the Russian television
station, NTV, that ‘today’s proselytism, by foreign sects and missionaries
... in Russia, is something of an eastward expansion and you may perhaps
draw parallels with NATO’s expansion to the East’.22 In the parliamentary debates themselves reference was made to the