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Françoise breaks free?
Richard Bates

, there was a teacher, man or woman, who came to the house once a week. 25 Any unsupervised activity was potentially suspect. Unaccompanied journeys were to be avoided: ‘My mother fretted about possible encounters on public transport.’ 26 Dolto hardly ever travelled alone before the age of twenty-one. During periods of separation from her parents – almost always spent with her grandmother or another close family member – the young Françoise was required to write regular letters to her

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

easily enough with her medical holist views. As her mother’s comment about ‘quite modern ideas’ indicates, in sweeping away the Republic, the National Revolution offered opportunities to technicians, engineers and social reformers, many of whom were appointed to influential positions. 38 In Paris and Vichy, technocrats seized the chance to implement schemes that had become stuck in the impasses of Third Republic politics, such as the integration of Parisian public transport, carried out in 1942. The polytechnicien and railway

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

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From Asiatic cholera to COVID-19 – the many publics of modern public health
Tom Crook

other things, enables the government to control or suspend public transport; order businesses, schools, ports and airports to close; detain people suspected of infection; and issue regulations regarding the movement of people and their proximity to others. 4 In the same month, the Treasury enacted an unprecedented ‘furlough’ scheme, effectively pay-rolling millions of workers: by December it had cost

in Publics and their health
Britta Lundgren
Martin Holmberg

their responsibility for social services, schools, public transport, etc.). We had been thinking about this for years, and this was interesting because the pandemic was one of the few things happening in the world where we actually were well prepared. For ten years we had worked out pandemic plans in Sweden and the EU. And we had a very obvious rehearsal with bird flu some years earlier. So we

in The politics of vaccination
Elisha P. Renne

Indeed, local government chairmen in states such as Borno and Yobe are in particularly difficult positions, as they are targets both of Ministry of Health officials and anti-government Boko Haram members. Aside from pressure on local government leaders and parents, in some areas, parental permission is circumvented altogether through the mass immunisation of children on public transport vehicles (‘transport teams’) or in

in The politics of vaccination
The problem of tuberculosis and its threat to nurses’ health, 1880–1950
Debbie Palmer

the Lancet Commission in 1932.46 Although the recruitment crisis in general nursing was a matter of great concern, the shortage appeared much more dramatic in the TB hospitals, which suffered not only from the stigma of possible infection but also from geographical ­positions on out-­of-­town sites with poor public transport. The Lancet Commission’s remit was to establish reasons for the shortage of nurses and to recommend how to make nursing more attractive to suitable women. It interpreted the cause of the shortage, not as a case of demand increasing faster than

in Who cared for the carers?
George Campbell Gosling

case of Bristol. The absence of ‘gas and water’ socialism – with municipal control of utilities providing a bedrock – did not equate to a lack of provision in the city. Utilities, like other core services such as public transport, were provided by private companies. 4 Meanwhile, charitable provision was extensive, including schools, settlements and almshouses, as well as dispensaries and hospitals. Consequently, Bristol was a city associated with philanthropists

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Stephen Snelders

1934 complained that the new leprosy edict was not supported by the good faith and the views of the population. Two-​thirds of those who were ordered to appear before the leprosy committee for examination disappeared. Many continued their professional lives, mingled with the general population, and travelled by public transport. When they were finally caught and sent to the government asylum Groot-​Chatillon, they escaped and lived hidden in the districts. According to the Report, the population was not sympathetic to the leprosy policies and the police force was too

in Leprosy and colonialism
Tommy Dickinson

peace were many’.57 Rebuilding the Empire, 1945–1951 After World War II, fears surrounding homosexuality acquired a particularly powerful resonance, and narratives of sexual danger as corruption predominated in public discourse.58 For many observers, the rapid social changes unleashed by the war seemed to have rendered Britain’s stability problematic. In the immediate post-war years, Harry Hopkins argues that the country had the atmosphere of one ‘huge transit camp’.59 Public transport was dirty, overcrowded and tardy; there were no dining cars on trains, and the

in ‘Curing queers’