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Clausewitz, Darwin, Henty and others
W.J. Reader

went so far as to say: ‘I like to see young women manly’) 27 ranks high among the virtues. This was what the authors of boys’ books continually told their readers and it is presumably what their readers wanted to hear. Writing of the great success of Henty’s stories Manville Fenn said: They are essentially manly and he used to say that he wanted his boys to be bold, straightforward and ready to play a young man’s part, not to be milksops. He had a horror of a lad who displayed any weak

in 'At duty’s call'
‘Your country needs YOU!’
W.J. Reader

Tuchman who ‘can offer the reader a rule based on adequate research: all statements of how lovely it was in that era made by persons contemporary with it will be found to have been made after 1914’, or to listen to Churchill: ‘Was it astonishing that German agents reported and German statesmen believed that England was paralysed by faction and drifting into civil war, and need not be taken into account as a factor in the European situation?’ 9 The Germans may not have been so wrong as Churchill hints. Certainly it was

in 'At duty’s call'
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‘Dominion over palm and pine’
W.J. Reader

Gordon in 1885. Roberts, nearing the age of 70, made himself a super-hero when he cancelled the early disasters of the Boer War by capturing Pretoria. He had a reputation for great popularity with the troops. It endeared him to the growing mass of newspaper-readers and gave him an advantage over Wolseley who ‘never won their affection … nor did he want it.’ 30 In 1897, before his South African apotheosis, Roberts scored ‘the greatest success of the last few publishing seasons’ 31 with his two-volume autobiography

in 'At duty’s call'
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W.J. Reader

Central Asia. ‘Dark days were succeeded by a period of happiness and rejoicing, and Britannia, grasping her trident again, seated herself on her shield beside the sea, Ruler of the Waves, Queen of Nations, and Empress of the World.’ 9 From declaration to peace treaty, the war lasts from mid-August to mid-November: an expression of the orthodox view that no war between the Great Powers would last long. Most of Le Queux’s readers probably shared his confidence in spontaneous help from the colonies. His reliance on India

in 'At duty’s call'
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A study in obsolete patriotism
Author:

The Victorian private solider was a despised figure. Yet in the first sixteen months of the Great War two and a half million men from the UK and many more from the empire, flocked to the colours without any form of legal compulsion. This book is the result of reflection on one of the most extraordinary mass movements in history: the surge of volunteers into the British army during the first sixteen months of the Great War. The notion that compulsory service in arms was repugnant to British tradition was mistaken. The nation's general state of mind, system of values and set of attitudes derived largely from the upper middle class, which had emerged and become dominant during the nineteenth century. The book examines the phenomenon of 1914 and the views held by people of that class, since it was under their leadership that the country went to war. It discusses the general theoretical notions of the nature of war of two nineteenth-century thinkers: Karl von Clausewitz and Charles Darwin. By 1914 patriotism and imperialism were interdependent. The early Victorians directed their abundant political energies chiefly towards free trade and parliamentary reform. It was the Germans' own policy which jolted the British into unity, for the Cabinet and the nation were far from unanimously in favour of war until the Germans attacked Belgium. Upper-class intellectual culture was founded on the tradition of 'liberal education' at the greater public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge.

W.J. Reader

The most productive period for individual memorials, before the Great War, was the nineteenth century, with its plentiful crop from the wars of the Empire. War memorials may be realistic, like the innumerable infantry privates up and down the country or the brutal stone howitzer with its crew at Hyde Park Corner. The Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny prompted noisy patriotism, but the mid-Victorian was clear enough about the distinction between a soldier and a civilian. The civilian might join the Volunteers, and many did when a French threat appeared in the 1860's. The flow of infantry volunteers dried up at once and the Imperial Yeomanry became attractive to many men who would not otherwise have considered enlisting. The stipulated qualifications for recruits to the Imperial Yeomanry, riding and shooting, were not seriously tested and recruits were given no training at home and little, except by experience, abroad.

in 'At duty’s call'
‘The best school of all’
W.J. Reader

The public schools were at the height of their prestige and influence during the forty years or so before the Great War. The influence of the Victorian public schools spread widely and deeply in English society, but the number of boys, who went to them, in proportion to the population as a whole, was tiny. The Victorian public schools fastened themselves into the mind of the mass of the nation far less through their existence in fact than through the stories told about them in fiction. As the army tradition spread to the middle-class schools of Victorian foundation, it took on a much more professional tinge, which it always had for the numerous officers recruited from the relatively impoverished Irish gentry. The most important function of the public schools, in Bishop Welldon's view, was the formation of the character of English gentlemen.

in 'At duty’s call'
W.J. Reader

In the air of 1914, there was an ardent romanticism which had long been building up, distilled from many elements in Victorian life and culture. It carried with it an invincible belief in the superiority of all things British; hostility, tinged with fear, towards Germany seen as the great rival, upstart, efficient and unscrupulous; and an innocent vision of war as a great and gallant knightly adventure. In 1914 opposition, concentrated in Ulster, to the Liberal Government's home rule bill, seemed to be bringing civil war very close indeed. But for the outbreak of war with Germany many officers of the British army might have been refusing to support the British government or even fighting against it. Members of the ruling class of Victorian England were guilty of much that, since their time, has come to be considered reprehensible.

in 'At duty’s call'
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British anti- racist non- fiction after empire
Dominic Davies

Black British woman to do so – ever. 1 The book shot into the top ten of several other international bestseller lists too, where it was included alongside influential academic studies and memoirs by prominent Black figures, as well as a number of books marketed as guides for readers – especially white readers – wishing to educate themselves about the effects of structural racism

in British culture after empire
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Jonathan Stafford

voyage forms just a small part of a wider work concerned with Eastern life or travel. In addition, numerous guidebooks to the East include information for the traveller regarding the route. 19 In a sense, these texts can be seen as productive of the voyage itself, framing and making legible the experience of travel for both those who wrote them, and for their readers. British colonial administrator and author William Delafield Arnold wrote an 1856 account of an overland route

in Imperial steam