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Contingency or transcendence formula of law?
Gunther Teubner

transcendence, which he separates strictly from religious transcendence. While Luhmann concentrates the experience of transcendence in one world of meaning, namely religion, thus implicitly excluding other social spheres, Derrida's deconstructive thought liberates it from this isolation and brings back the disquieting awareness of transcendence into the highly rationalised and secularised worlds of the economy, of

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Derrida, Luhmann, Wiethölter
Gunther Teubner

and justice had religious connotations as a matter of course). But in Luhmann's theory, secularisation entails the de-transcendentalisation of all social subsystems and a concentration of the reflection of transcendence in only one system of meaning, that of religion. 38 But is this not at variance with the tough resistance to secularisation displayed by social utopias (socialism, fascism, neo

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Steven Earnshaw

end there is a plaintive cry from Sommer: ‘ “This is the autumn, it will break your heart”. Two words tacked themselves on: “Fly away! Fly away!” Yes, to be able to fly away from this soiled world, from this unclean “I”!’24 Again there is the sense of a secularised religious context: here it is in the language of ‘soiled’ and ‘unclean’, as if both he and the world are guilty and sinful –​he is sullied, the earth25 is despoiled –​in a way that is similar to Geoffrey Firmin in Under the Volcano, and ‘the drinker’ in this self-​presentation comes to represent the

in The Existential drinker
Abstract only
Democratic state, capitalist society, or dysfunctional differentiation?
Darrow Schecter

, exactly, law and the state can be located in physical terms, however.9 Habermas’s reading of Durkheim is instructive in this regard. He thinks Durkheim believes that law was once embedded in traditional institutions such as the church, and that as political authority gradually became secularised, legal institutions and juridical reasoning were de-​coupled from religion and trad­ition. In the course of this process, law develops into a medium of communication with its own norms. He understands Durkheim to be saying, broadly, that after passing through various stages of

in Critical theory and sociological theory
Abstract only
Rainer Forst and the history of toleration
Teresa M. Bejan

latter saw latitude as an effective way of bringing in (or ‘comprehending’) as many dissenters as possible within the state Church, leaving only a weak and eminently persecutable remnant outside. The most infamous example is Hobbes’s peculiarly minimalist form of Christianity in which the belief that ‘Jesus is the Christ’ and sacramental obedience to the Sovereign were the only fundamenta . Forst calls out the Enlightenment (and Kant) for effectively secularising this ‘humanist ideal of religious unity’ and so reintroducing intolerance of ‘superstition’ in their

in Toleration, power and the right to justification
Mads Qvortrup

of their revolt was a wholly unintended secularisation. Summing up this development Max Weber concluded that ‘the fate of our times is characterised by rationalism and intellectualisation, and above all the disenchantment [entzauberung] of the world’ (Weber 1997: 155).3 Even Friedrich Nietzsche, in so many ways the evangelist of atheism, could empathise with the Angst Chap002.p65 21 11/09/03, 13:33 and the gruesome prospect of horror vacui. In The Joyful Science Nietzsche wrote the story of the madman, a tale which leaves nobody in doubt about how disturbing

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Andrew Bowie

such a link. In Western history, attention to natural beauty for its own sake generally arises at the moment when nature ceases to be perceived as predominantly a threat to human survival. Those areas of society which develop their powers of technological control over nature, to the point where they can come to more real than mythical terms with it, can also become concerned with nature’s beauty and integrity.14 It is at this point, therefore, that nature’s value in itself as the object of contemplation can emerge: the secularisation of nature, which had previously

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Fichte, Hölderlin and Novalis
Andrew Bowie

problematic, to the point in the early twentieth century where the avant-garde puts the very notion of art into question. One of the many reasons for this questioning is the growing ability of science to explain and solve problems which were previously inexplicable and insoluble, a development which also continually reduces the role of philosophy in determining our place in things. Odo Marquard has seen this situation in terms of the move in nineteenth-century secularised thinking from aesthetics, the means of reconciling ourselves, at least in the realm of appearance, to

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art
Andrew Bowie

concern can also be understood both as suggesting the limits of subjective reason and as a warning about the dominant developments in the modern history of Geist, of the kind that lead to ecological devastation. The underlying question here is whether what previously belonged to ‘religion’ as a public ‘project of social cooperation’, must, in the light of secularisation and rationalisation, now be located in the private domain. Any positive claims about the significance of natural beauty evidently do run the risk of mere dogmatism if they are seen as substantiating a

in Aesthetics and subjectivity