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Victoria Coldham-Fussell

discussed by Auerbach, and to be more influenced by Lucian and Apuleius than by Langland or Chaucer. 138 Renaissance tragicomedy, too, may be said thoroughly to secularise Christian humour. Ros King distinguishes between, on the one hand, the ‘V-shape’ tragicomedy, which enacts a passage from fall to redemption and lends itself to Christian analogy, and, on the other, the ‘much darker beast’ we encounter in the Elizabethan mixed-genre form. The latter, says King, seems to ‘take delight in a complex, even contradictory, sense of good and evil’. 139 Yet the tradition of

in Comic Spenser
Dramatic and civil logics of the European state-form
Jacques Lezra

is human history. The disguised Duke – or perhaps Shakespeare – is being deeply ironic, or perhaps displaying an extraordinary grasp of the logic of redemption, of sacrifice: the decapitated, ‘notorious’ ‘pirate’ is the hinge on which politics meets theology, where the secularised concept displays the persistent and inerasable trace of its theological origin, where human

in Transnational connections in early modern theatre
Penelope and Arachne in early modern drama
Nathalie Rivère de Carles

’s methodology. 53 She makes Leontes good by forming new habits in him: patience, justice, endurance. 54 However disappointing the play’s ending may be from a feminine point of view, The Winter’s Tale still stages a tutor in political mean in the shape of a woman and initiates a subtle renovation of feminine characterisation. Secularising the mythical weaver

in Interweaving myths in Shakespeare and his contemporaries
England’s altered confidence
Anne Sweeney

such a kingdom – ‘Signes’, false seemings, that merely pretend real kingship (‘Marie Magdalens complaint’, lines 19, 20–2). To a Catholic, Mass without the real presence was a mockery of the truth; to a Puritan the continuing appearance of bishops’ finery and other remnants of the Old Faith, and the tendency towards secularisation of the State, showed up the botched reformation that Elizabeth’s church

in Robert Southwell
Reading historically and intertextually
Judith Anderson

for it, and, like the tragi-comic romance of the Knight’s Tale , it is presided over by Boethian fortune, a complex attitude towards experience that is recurrent, if underappreciated, in The Faerie Queene as well. 7 The Troilus features a version of Boethius that is secularised in the main and, until the end of the poem, more compatible with a cyclical, fatalistic emphasis on history than with transcendent idealism. 8 Both Chaucer and Spenser, incidentally, invoke Clio, muse of history, and Calliope, muse of epic song (and

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
Abstract only
Jeremy Tambling

, rising from ‘the necessity of communication within adaptation’, or because of translation of older texts, which would require anachronisms to be humorous, as aids to communication, or out of a desire to secularise or desacralise figures of the past or ‘to actualise the past and secure its vitality’. 21 But Gabrielle Spiegel quotes John Pocock that ‘the study of the past within a society or within

in On anachronism
Southwell’s sacralised poetic
Anne Sweeney

Catholic communal festivities of Corpus Christi and Ascension-tide with her own feasts, her Accession Day and her birthday. 30 Southwell is here perhaps reminding the English commons, in simple form, of that secularising piracy. This translation has the cheery tone of a drinking song – not at all the ascetic mood of Southwell’s other holy poems. It ends with a prayer to Jesus, ‘food and feeder of

in Robert Southwell
The ‘inward eie’
Anne Sweeney

importance of the (right-thinking) self in autonomous acts of discernment. Its strength and its weakness lay in the fact that it was a model that could be effective to any Christian in a secularising world, though; subsequent Protestant interest in medieval and even contemporary Catholic meditational texts shows how far this was the case. Deconstructing a congregation into its component parts and

in Robert Southwell
Felicity Dunworth

that ‘the stage configuration is a pietà’ they argue that ‘Margaret’s lament for her son is another example of Shakespeare’s secularising stage tradition by using an element from the dramatic history of salvation for its emotional effect while displacing it literally from its narrative and moral context’. 95 Shakespeare creates a moment which evokes dramatic and iconographical tradition but Margaret’s plight demands of its audience a wider

in Mothers and meaning on the early modern English stage
Rochester, Mennes, Pepys, Urquhart and the sense of dis-ordure
Peter J. Smith

excrements, the very sinks of the Body’ – figuratively that is, between two stools. 69 This vehicle for religious self-abasement (the motif can be traced back to the writings of the biblical exegetes) is secularised by Rochester. The poet is clearly less interested in ethical meditation or spiritual crusading than he is in damning his political enemies and using them to represent more specifically

in Between two stools