American zombie Gothic films have changed markedly in their tone, style, and structure
since September 11, an evolution that expands the Gothic mode to include the mobility of
the narratives protagonists, a popularisation of the movies, and an increased engagement
with a multi-ethnic international community. To remain timely, relevant, and commercially
viable, such alterations must occur, and these shifts in particular can best be explained
by the changing cinematic marketplace, the influence of videogames, and the policies and
anxieties resulting from the (inter)national trauma of 9/11 and the War on Terror. This
essay examines the film version of World War Z as a key text for exploring the current
transition from a localised siege narrative to an international kind of road trip movie, a
shift largely tied to the popularity of zombie-themed videogames.
This chapter analyses the physicality of the referent and the documentary expression in the media. It explores some aspects of the proto-pictorial quality of documentary expression in writing and compares it with that in painting, to which notions of documentary can be applied only with some awkwardness. The chapter also examines how the photographic image works within its distinctive alignments of the pictorial and the physical. It evaluates three written documents, including George Orwell's The Road to Wigan Pier, Sebastian Junger's The Perfect Storm and the The Guardian newspaper's reporting of the September 11 terrorist attacks the following day.
Fernando Gabriel Pagnoni Berns and Emiliano Aguilar
of 9/11 felt like a violation, pointing to the fact that the USA was no longer invulnerable. It was a divine apocalypse brought to our reality. Karen Armstrong argued that 9/11 revealed a reality that had always existed but which was invisible. The atrocities showed how extremely unstable our position is in a world where most people feel underprivileged and defenceless ( 2003 : 107), in brief, living in a world dominated by injustice. The September11 terrorist attack ‘deeply upset the religious faith of the Americans who believed in an omnipotent, just, and
(his uncle), an act that leads to a cycle of revenge. (In 2002, he made
a short a comic fable, set in Ouagadougou, as part of the portmanteau film
11/09/01 – September11 .) Simple (but not simplistic) moral
tales about power and authority, these films are clearly on a par with
Yaaba and Tilaï but they have not received much attention
from critics and have not been screened widely. Although these works have
backward people who bear little culpability for the events of September11?’ In the Guardian, Jonathan Steele suggested that the
target had been widened to include the Taliban because coalition leaders
had realised that ‘finding Bin Laden might prove impossible’
(11 October) and so that ‘any hit on the dartboard [could] be
trumpeted as proof we’ve scored’ (6 October). In the
Times, columnist Mick
Chris Morris and comedy’s representational strategies
edn (London: BBC
Worldwide, 2003), 534.
9 Dan Harries, Film Parody (London: British Film Institute, 2000), 4.
10 Justin Lewis, ‘September11, 2001’, in Glen Creeber (ed.), Fifty Key Television
3049 Experimental British Tele
Experimental British television
Programmes (London: Edward Arnold, 2004), 174–7.
11 Karen Lury, Interpreting Television (London: Hodder Arnold, 2005), 18.
12 Dai Vaughan, For Documentary: Twelve Essays (Berkeley and Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 1999), 120.
13 Jessica Evans and David Hesmondhalgh
Renegotiating Chilean identity in Alicia Scherson’s Play (2005)
marginal on the inside: nannies and maids in Chilean cultural production
(1982–2000)’ , in S. Nagy-Zekmi and F. Leiva (eds), Democracy in Chile: The Legacy of September11,
1973 ( Brighton, Portland : Sussex Academic Press , 2005 ), pp. 163–77 .
Castells , M. Globalización, desarrollo y democracia: Chile en
el contexto mundial ( Santiago,
Chile : Fondo de cultura
económica , 2005
meeting was held between key political and entertainment
industry figures (including Karl Rove and Jack Valenti) to discuss
cultural responses to the 9/11 attacks. The New York Times reported
in March 2002 that ‘the Pentagon’s image builders take Hollywood
just as seriously as they take the news media, if not more so … In the
wake of September11, the military sees what television analysts call
“militainment” as one of the most effective ways to get its message
across’ (as cited by Frazier, 2002: 4). Since one of the central themes
of US foreign policy since World War
Wyatt, High Concept: Movies and Marketing in Hollywood (Austin,
University of Texas Press, 1994), pp. 20–2.
Nevertheless, some documentaries have been effectively pre-sold
on the basis of their stars and/or subject matter. These include various
music documentaries and, in the latter category, films based on
already mediated news events, including the previously televised bus
hijack retold in Bus 174, and Michael Moore’s reworking of September11th and the Columbine shooting in Fahrenheit 9/11 and Bowling
Super Size Me grossed £1 million in the UK
Orientalism and the erotic in L’Immortelle and C’est Gradiva qui vous appelle
Companion to Delacroix , Cambridge ,
Cambridge University Press .
Žižek , Slavoj ( 2002 ),
Welcome to the Desert of the Real! Five Essays on
September11 and Related Dates , London , Verso .
Zootrope Films ( 2006 ),
Les Films du Lendemain and Z Company Publicity