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Richard Jackson

; the significance and implication of the experience, its wider social ‘reading’ as it were, has to be established afterwards through the use and deployment of words, and different words can result in different ‘readings’ for the same set of facts. The events of September 11, 2001 are a perfect illustration of this process. While it was immediately obvious what had taken place

in Writing the war on terrorism
Language, politics and counter-terrorism
Author: Richard Jackson

This book is about the public language of the 'war on terrorism' and the way in which language has been deployed to justify and normalise a global campaign of counter-terrorism. It explains how the war on terrorism has been reproduced and amplified by key social actors and how it has become the dominant political narrative in America today, enjoying widespread bipartisan and popular support. The book also explains why the language of politics is so important and the main methodological approach for analysing the language of counter-terrorism, namely, critical discourse analysis. Then, it provides the comparison drawn between the September 11, 2001 attacks and World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. One of the most noticeable aspects of the language surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 is its constant reference to tragedy, grievance and the exceptional suffering of the American people. The book focuses on the way in which language was deployed to construct the main identities of the protagonists. It demonstrates how terrorism is rhetorically constructed as posing a catastrophic threat to the American 'way of life', to freedom, liberty and democracy and even to civilisation itself. The book analyses how the administration's counter-terrorism campaign has been rhetorically constructed as an essentially 'good' and 'just war', similar to America's role in World War II. Finally, the book concludes that responsible citizens have a moral duty to oppose and resist the official language of counter-terrorism.

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Language and politics
Richard Jackson

, what kind of threat they pose and why the war will succeed. Second, it explains how the language of the ‘war on terrorism’ has become the dominant political paradigm in American foreign policy since September 11, 2001 , and the different kinds of reality-making affects that the adoption of this language has. It describes how the official language of counter-terrorism has been

in Writing the war on terrorism
Richard Jackson

actual risk for most people is negligible? Part of the answer to this puzzle rests in the character of terrorist violence itself, in particular the sheer visceral horror of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Such seemingly random violence, packaged as media spectacle, creates an initial shock that is difficult to transcend. As Zulaika and Douglass explain

in Writing the war on terrorism
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

terrorism for African countries. While certainly true that parts of the continent were still terrorized by anti-government rebel groups, warlords, and private militias, the issue was highly localized or seen as a relic of the liberation struggles and the Cold War. It appeared to have little relevance to the developing new world order. All this began to change, however, following events of September 11, 2001, and the issue of terrorism in Africa would steadily come to the fore as one of the continent’s most pressing security challenges of the new century. Scope and nature

in African security in the twenty-first century
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

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Evil terrorists, good Americans
Richard Jackson

assault on September 11, 2001. Rather, it was carefully and deliberately created to satisfy a number of political objectives. At the simplest level, establishing the identities of the primary characters – the heroes and villains or the ‘good guys’ and the ‘bad guys’ – was a key element in constructing the overall narrative of the ‘war on terrorism’. In a media-saturated society, establishing the

in Writing the war on terrorism
Richard Jackson

no doubt, we are at war, and it is a world war. There is simply no other name for it’ (Melshen, 27 June, 2003). This global military campaign or ‘world war’ began in the first hours after the September 11, 2001 attacks when President George W. Bush declared on prime-time television that America was launching a ‘war against terrorism’ (Bush, 11 September, 2001b). The military was put on full

in Writing the war on terrorism
Phil Williams

2504Chap4 7/4/03 12:39 pm Page 69 4 Eurasia and the transnational terrorist threats to Atlantic security Phil Williams The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were not only the most audacious and successful terrorist attacks the world has yet seen, but also marked the maturation of what had been described as the ‘new terrorism’. It was a maturation in several senses. In the first place it revealed that trends identified by astute specialists such as Walter Laqueur, Bruce Hoffman and Ian Lesser were, in fact, well

in Limiting institutions?
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Reproducing the discourse
Richard Jackson

So FAR I HAVE EXAMINED the primary narratives at the heart of the ‘war on terrorism’ – the way in which language constructs the events of September 11, 2001, and the way it creates identities, threats and the counter-terrorist war. In this sense, I have been examining the constituent parts that taken together make up the whole. In order to take the analysis to the

in Writing the war on terrorism