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Celia Hughes

2 Youth subcultures The New Left cultures that emerged around the VSC in the mid-1960s grew from radical subcultures young activists shaped earlier in the decade. Encounters with these subcultures often occurred in adolescence, the transitional period contemporaries generally regarded as spanning the years between fourteen and twenty-one, between childhood and legal adult age. For most young activists entry into the network around the VSC coincided with the first years of university, so that earlysixties subcultures bridged the social and psychological

in Young lives on the Left
The milieu culture of DIY punk
Peter Webb

5 Crass, subculture and class: the milieu culture of DIY punk Peter Webb This chapter presents an account of the activities and social formation of the DIY punk band Crass in order to develop a critique of the notion of ‘subculture’ employed at the time of the group’s existence (1977–85) by the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). It supplies a narrative of how the band and the cultural movement known as `anarchopunk’ provided a ‘milieu’ where class identities could blend and develop hybrid forms of cultural and social capital.1

in Fight back
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Punk, politics and resistance

The Subcultures Network is a cross-disciplinary research network for scholars and students interested in the relationship between subcultures (in all their forms) and wider processes of social, cultural and political change. Bringing together theoretical analyses, empirical studies and methodological discussions, the network is designed to explore the relationships between subcultures and their historical context, and the place of subcultures within patterns of cultural and political change. This book is very much a product of the Network's brief and emerged, in large part, from the inaugural symposium held at London Metropolitan University in September 2011. The book is divided into three parts, each with a broadly defined theme. The first of these relates to punk and identity, particularly with regard to gender, class, age and race. The second part looks at punk's relationship to locality and space. In particular, it deals with two overlapping processes. First, the ways in which punk's transmission allowed for diverse interpretation and utilisation of the cultural form beyond local, regional and national boundaries. Second, the extent to which punk's aesthetic and expression was shaped by, inspired and reflected the environments in which its protagonists lived. The third and final part concentrates on communication and reception. From within the culture, the language of punk is brought under discursive analysis by Melani Schröter, who looks at the critiques of 'normality' contained within the lyrics of German punk bands from the late 1970s through to the present day.

The relational character of subcultural ideology in the case ofCzech punks and skinheads
Hedvika Novotná and Martin Heřmanský

conformity.1 From within the same totalitarian regime, moreover, and very much linked to the emergent punk subculture, came the Czech skinhead. Such a political system was soon to change. Nevertheless, punks and skinheads remain fellow travellers to this day; indeed, the relationship between the two subcultures, while taking different forms at different times in different places, may even be seen as essential to their survival. We would argue, too, that punk’s development is always informed by the character of the dominant society of which it is part. Its subcultural

in Fight back
Debates over cultural conventions in French punk
Jonathyne Briggs

establishment, so too did the -140- Transmission punks destroy those in one of the historical halls of French popular song as an expression of cultural protest. When it appeared in France in the late 1970s, punk was often equated with the events of 1968. However, in terms of social impact the two events could not be further apart, as punk’s development in France lacked the same critical power as the protests from a decade earlier or its British antecedent. Why did the punk subculture, which was so significant across the Channel, have less of an impact in France? What was

in Fight back
Exploring the articulation of identity by older women punks
Laura Way

3 Playing a-minor in the punk scene? Exploring the articulation of identity by older women punks Laura Way Punk has retained its presence in the subcultural literature that has flourished since the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was established in the 1960s. But while theoretical shifts away from the assumed link between youth and subcultural participation have drawn attention to ageing within a subculture, there continues to be a notable absence of women in such analysis. To help rectify this, I intend here to utilise

in Fight back
Life in a religious subculture after the Agreement
Gladys Ganiel and Claire Mitchell

the Free Presbyterian Church, has dominated public perceptions of evangelicalism, it is in fact a much more diverse and politically varied group than is usually supposed (Mitchell and Ganiel, 2011 ). In this chapter, we develop our concept of an evangelical subculture in order to explore how both the politics of the post-Agreement period, as well as more mundane, everyday

in Everyday life after the Irish conflict
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East German punk in its social, political and historical context
Aimar Ventsel

may seem like a strange beginning for a chapter on punk, but many of the social issues highlighted by Sarrazin also concern German punks. Indeed, this chapter focuses on how the diminishing status of the working class is reflected in East German punk. Simultaneously, it argues that subculture can provide an alternative space for low-status people and the possibility of resisting public prejudices by applying irony and provocation. Discussing the ‘demonisation’ of the working class is nothing new in the UK, whether in academic or leftist analytical literature.4 It is

in Fight back
‘Crisis music’ and political ephemera in the emergent ‘structure of feeling’, 1976–83
Herbert Pimlott

to be taken into consideration. Second, it reclaims those products of subcultural production as resources for reconstructing the ‘emergent’ (e.g. alternative, resistant) ‘structure of feeling’ as revealed through the typeface, layout, words, phrases, symbols and sounds of the music and political ephemera: ‘affective elements of consciousness and relationships … thought as felt and feeling as thought’.5 Finally, this chapter demonstrates the importance of recovering the ‘lived experiences’ of a subaltern social class or subculture as a means to gaining a fuller

in Fight back
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Discourses of normality and denormalisation in German punk lyrics
Melani Schröter

dimensions of power, injustice, abuse, and political-economic or cultural change in society’.3 In terms of academic disciplines, CDA is pursued mostly by linguists and sociologists. One purpose of this article is to promote the study of language use/discourses in relation to subcultures/punk, but also to trigger the interest of critical discourse analysts in the study of subcultural texts and discourse because of their potential to undermine hegemonic discourse. -254- When the punks go marching in A critical discourse analysis view on punk In the last few decades

in Fight back