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Lester K. Little

founded at Naples in 1224 by stressing the abundance there of grain, meat, and fish. Vercelli sought to shake students loose from Padua to enter its new university in 1228 and Toulouse tried to do the same to Paris in 1229, both touting their ready availability of inexpensive wine, bread, meat, and fish. So it was that in this, Bologna’s first great era of expansion, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, precisely when the university and its various sub-cultures, e.g. rooming houses, taverns, stationers, book sellers, etc., took root, the owners of the land outside the

in Indispensable immigrants
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Deborah Youngs

sub-cultures for particular literary genres. All offer useful insight into the nature of gentry horizons, and the potential influence of regional activities on gentry culture. The purpose of this chapter is to survey and assess the studies undertaken so far on what might be called literary or reading networks. There are several reasons for trying to identify reading networks among the late medieval

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
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Deborah Youngs

subcultures , p. 1; Hareven, ‘The last stage’, p. 205. 10 E.g. Jeanette Winterson writing in the Guardian in 2001: ‘The nineteenth century invented childhood, so that it could sentimentalise its own brutality. Throughout history, kids have always been little adults, expected to contribute to the

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
David d’Avray

virtually always operates within parameters set by value rationality, and the values which define objectives and ‘no-go areas’ affect the whole character of common-sense reasoning in a given culture or subculture. 13 The foregoing all applies to the public justifications of actions: legitimating rationality. We must also ask whether there are different reasons below the surface, on the principle that ‘consciousness lies to itself’. 14 Was there an ‘agenda’ behind the kinship system? This agenda could be hidden from the consciousness of those who imposed the system as

in Law, laity and solidarities
Thinking, feeling, making
James Paz

the nineteenth century onwards. 7 While current trends for artisanal, hand-made goods could be accused of commodifying both the concept and the products of craftwork, packaging and selling everything from craft beer to home-made candles at high prices, previous craft movements were more explicitly connected to progressive politics. Contemporary ‘craft’ is indebted to the Arts and Crafts movement that emerged in Britain around 1880, but the so-called hipster subculture does not always share the revolutionary spirit

in Dating Beowulf
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Healing, reading, and perfection in the late-medieval household
Michael Leahy

MS Harley 2253—​ see the chapters by Radulescu and Critten in this volume. 51 See Carol M. Meale, ‘ “…alle the bokes that I haue of latyn, englisch, and frensch”: Lay Women and their Books in Late Medieval England’, and Felicity Riddy, ‘Women Talking about the Things of God:  A Late Medieval Subculture’, both in Carol M. Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain, 1150–​1500 (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 128–​58 (Meale) and pp.  104–​27 (Riddy). A  recent study by Linda Voigts and Anne Payne of a late fifteenth-​century medical compendium

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
Deborah Youngs

paramour hope to pursue. 118 To what extent the available evidence suggests that a youth sub-culture existed in the Middle Ages is debatable. There has been strong opposition from some historians who point to the absence of juvenile law; a lack of exclusively youthful events, institutions and written material; the lack of personal wealth; and the control of leisure time by householder or employer. It should

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500
Open Access (free)
Daniel C. Remein and Erica Weaver

time you're really doing this job, and I have my translations and Jack's of the Beowulf , and so on. They are better than anybody's so far, Jack's especially. 33 Performing at once a series of intimate translations between languages, times, avocations, and subcultures, as well as the intimacy of translation itself, Beowulf is thus partly constitutive of a community whose intimacies

in Dating Beowulf
Elisabeth Salter

. Riddy, ‘ “Women talking about the things of God”: A late medieval sub-culture’, in Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain; T.H. Bestul, Texts of the Passion: Latin Devotional Literature and Medieval Society (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996), pp. 4–10. 76 See, for example, J.P. Harthan, Books of Hours and the Owners (London: Thames and Hudson, 1977); Nash, Between France and Flanders. For more interpretative studies see L.L. Brownrigg (ed.), Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence, Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Seminar in the

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600
Elisabeth Salter

books in late medieval England’, in C. Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain, 1150–1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993); F. Riddy, ‘“Women talking about the things of God”: A late medieval sub-culture’, in Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain, pp. 106–11; and J. Boffey, ‘Women authors and women’s literacy Salter, Popular reading in English.indd 30 21/05/2012 10:15:03 Introduction to methods and terms 31 in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century England’, in Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain, pp. 165–75. 11 On the nature of a

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600