founded at Naples in 1224 by stressing the abundance there of grain, meat, and fish. Vercelli sought to shake students loose from Padua to enter its new university in 1228 and Toulouse tried to do the same to Paris in 1229, both touting their ready availability of inexpensive wine, bread, meat, and fish. So it was that in this, Bologna’s first great era of expansion, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, precisely when the university and its various sub-cultures, e.g. rooming houses, taverns, stationers, book sellers, etc., took root, the owners of the land outside the
sub-cultures for particular literary genres. All offer useful insight
into the nature of gentry horizons, and the potential influence of
regional activities on gentry culture. The purpose of this chapter is to
survey and assess the studies undertaken so far on what might be called
literary or reading networks.
There are several reasons for trying to identify reading
networks among the late medieval
subcultures , p. 1; Hareven, ‘The last stage’, p.
E.g. Jeanette Winterson writing in the
Guardian in 2001: ‘The nineteenth century invented
childhood, so that it could sentimentalise its own brutality.
Throughout history, kids have always been little adults, expected to
contribute to the
virtually always operates within parameters set by value rationality, and the values which define objectives and ‘no-go areas’ affect the whole character of common-sense reasoning in a given culture or subculture. 13
The foregoing all applies to the public justifications of actions: legitimating rationality. We must also ask whether there are different reasons below the surface, on the principle that ‘consciousness lies to itself’. 14 Was there an ‘agenda’ behind the kinship system? This agenda could be hidden from the consciousness of those who imposed the system as
the nineteenth century onwards.
While current trends for artisanal, hand-made goods could be accused of commodifying both the concept and the products of craftwork, packaging and selling everything from craft beer to home-made candles at high prices, previous craft movements were more explicitly connected to progressive politics. Contemporary ‘craft’ is indebted to the Arts and Crafts movement that emerged in Britain around 1880, but the so-called hipster subculture does not always share the revolutionary spirit
Healing, reading, and perfection in the late-medieval household
see the chapters by Radulescu and Critten in this
51 See Carol M. Meale, ‘ “…alle the bokes that I haue of latyn, englisch,
and frensch”: Lay Women and their Books in Late Medieval England’,
and Felicity Riddy, ‘Women Talking about the Things of God: A
Late Medieval Subculture’, both in Carol M. Meale (ed.), Women and
Literature in Britain, 1150–1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1993), pp. 128–58 (Meale) and pp. 104–27 (Riddy). A recent
study by Linda Voigts and Anne Payne of a late fifteenth-century
paramour hope to pursue. 118
To what extent the available evidence suggests that a
youth sub-culture existed in the Middle Ages is debatable. There has
been strong opposition from some historians who point to the absence of
juvenile law; a lack of exclusively youthful events, institutions and
written material; the lack of personal wealth; and the control of
leisure time by householder or employer. It should
time you're really doing this job, and I have my translations and Jack's of the Beowulf , and so on. They are better than anybody's so far, Jack's especially.
Performing at once a series of intimate translations between languages, times, avocations, and subcultures, as well as the intimacy of translation itself, Beowulf is thus partly constitutive of a community whose intimacies
. Riddy, ‘ “Women talking about the things of God”: A
late medieval sub-culture’, in Meale (ed.), Women and Literature in Britain;
T.H. Bestul, Texts of the Passion: Latin Devotional Literature and Medieval
Society (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996), pp. 4–10.
76 See, for example, J.P. Harthan, Books of Hours and the Owners (London:
Thames and Hudson, 1977); Nash, Between France and Flanders. For more
interpretative studies see L.L. Brownrigg (ed.), Medieval Book Production:
Assessing the Evidence, Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Seminar
books in late medieval England’, in C. Meale (ed.),
Women and Literature in Britain, 1150–1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1993); F. Riddy, ‘“Women talking about the things of
God”: A late medieval sub-culture’, in Meale (ed.), Women and Literature
in Britain, pp. 106–11; and J. Boffey, ‘Women authors and women’s literacy
Salter, Popular reading in English.indd 30
Introduction to methods and terms
in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century England’, in Meale (ed.), Women and
Literature in Britain, pp. 165–75.
11 On the nature of a