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The importance of cartoons, caricature, and satirical art in imperial contexts
Richard Scully and Andrekos Varnava

. Streicher was calling for a unified theoretical framework for cartoons as historical sources; and W. A. Coupe had commenced his long and distinguished career as a historian of German graphic satires. 38 Then in 1970 – via a backhanded aside in his essay ‘The Third Meaning’ – Barthes reluctantly accepted the emergence of the comic strip as a new form of art, despite it having been ‘born in the lower depths of high culture’, and being largely a ‘derisory, vulgar, foolish, dialogical [form] of consumer subculture

in Comic empires
The Bible and British Maritime Empire
Gareth Atkins

. 13 Recent scholarship suggests that apocalyptic language continued to appeal to politicians, preachers and activists for much of the nineteenth century. 14 Nevertheless, Chamberlain was speaking to an intellectual subculture that, while still viable, was coming to look old-fashioned. There were a variety of reasons for this. As W. H. Oliver suggested, in what remains the best survey of the subject, ‘few parts of the Bible were as vulnerable to modern

in Chosen peoples
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Patrick O’Leary

extremity, and it was possible for a person to be both British and Irish unless motivated to choose to be one or the other. It is argued here that the point at which the balance for a given individual would tip to one side more than another depended on circumstances. In the situation where a young Irishman found himself serving the Raj in Punjab as part of a subculture dominated by

in Servants of the empire
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The Case of Peter Lobengula
Ben Shephard

little need to look in detail at those newspapers. Rather he saw working-men’s clubs as the true expression of the ‘indigenous [working-class] subculture within the wider framework of Victorian Britain.’ Douglas Lorimer, in his analysis of racialism in mid-Victorian Britain, wrote that ‘the press, indulging in senationalism to arouse readers’ interest, gives us an exaggerated, distorted view of racial

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
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Fields of understanding and political action
Richard Philips

in 2000 among 42,000 girls aged 12–16, found that 87 per cent think the age of consent of 16 is too high: P. Tatchell, ‘Lower the age of consent’, Guardian (1 August 2001), p. 15. 11 G. Wotherspoon, ‘City of the Plain’: History of a Gay Sub-Culture (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1991), p. 21. 12 Associated Press, ‘Britain scraps islands’ anti-gay laws’, Guardian (6 January 2001), p. 7; gay sex became legal in all the islands on Monday 1 January

in Sex, politics and empire
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A colonial world
John Darwin

distinctive agrarian culture. After 1910 (the year of Korea’s annexation), as Alain Delissen points out, Japanese were treated to all intents on a par with Koreans, and by 1942 both Korea and Taiwan were on the brink of being designated naichi territories, parts of the Japanese metropole rather than the empire. Thus the political framework of Japanese settlement ought to have exerted a very different influence on their notions of a ‘settler’ identity from the British case. But how far, nevertheless, there was a vigorous unofficial sub-culture

in New frontiers
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Identity, genealogy, legacy
David N. Livingstone

racial ascendancy by Fijian leaders over Indian and other ethnic emigrants’. Similarly Gareth Atkins pauses to note that ‘[g]iven that parts of the internet are populated with people still convinced that Britain (or America) really is Tarshish, that subculture continues to resonate with some even today’. And Murray, conscious that the ‘legacies of British Israelism are complex and diverse’ and that ‘the movement has spawned distinct offshoots in different regions of the English-speaking world’, reminds us that some of ‘the last strongholds of British-Israel identity

in Chosen peoples
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A hierarchical empire
A. Martin Wainwright

‘gentlemen’ and ‘ladies’ visiting or studying in the United Kingdom. Less frequently the translation of upper-caste to gentlemanly status occurred through emergency assistance in time of need, and without the normal requirement of manual labour. Indeed the frequent references to caste in the JNIA and its successors is evidence of an elite subculture of Indians in Britain who

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
Open Access (free)
John Marriott

others of the early nineteenth-century literary subculture that we have to look for the defining moment. Concern with the dissembling potentiality of the poor focused endeavour to know London as a modern city at that paradoxical moment when the realization of this vision came to be recognized as problematic. Toward the close of the eighteenth century a range of issues around

in The other empire
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Literary criticism and the colonial public
Christopher Hilliard

published version of his Cambridge thesis announced the beginnings of a literature in tune with its surroundings: a literature whose exemplar was Frank Sargeson, who made his name with short fiction that examined a subculture of itinerant male labourers, the proletariat of what one indignant reviewer called a rural slum. 48 As feminine melodrama was ill-adapted to the colonial scene, so was an authentic New Zealand

in The cultural construction of the British world