occupation. None had been active in the colony’s pre-war anti-fascist parties. Such men spent the Japanese occupation in hiding or in gaol.
The Indonesian members came from the privileged classes of the colony. They were medical doctors, lawyers, journalists, educators and party activists. All spoke Dutch. Three of thesixty-two were women. One had obtained her law degree from Leiden University in the Netherlands. 13 The other two female members had held public roles as municipal councillors in the multi-ethnic city administrations set up by the Dutch in Batavia
National Assembly, the people it represented, and push for full national independence. The Democrats established party chapters at the provincial and district levels, working with urban elites and monks. The party nominated candidates with real support in the countryside to run for Assembly positions. In the first election of 1946, the Democrats won fifty of thesixty-seven available seats. The rise of parliamentary republicanism in Cambodia was real. The French could live with such colonial democracy as long as the protectorate remained a part of the French Union.
Green, All Dressed Up: TheSixties and the Counterculture (London: Vintage, 1999), pp. 2–3.
Bailkin, Afterlife of Empire , pp. 19, 55–132.
RCS, Council Minutes, Council Minutes, 24 February 1966.
. Among other reasons, Staunton pointed out that, due to the probable outbreak of war between Britain and France, a warship was needed to convey the British merchant ships back home. Since the embassy's flagship, thesixty-four-gun Lion , was the best available for the time being, the embassy could not afford to lose time in joining the Lion 's Captain, Sir Erasmus Gower, at Zhoushan. With regard to the disappointment within the embassy, Staunton wrote:
So sudden a removal was a disappointment to
The importance of cartoons, caricature, and satirical art in imperial
Richard Scully and Andrekos Varnava
., 1893; Gleeson White, English Illustration: TheSixties, 1857–1870 , London: Constable, 1897; J. A. Hammerton, Humorists of the Pencil , London: Hurst and Blackett, 1905.
Linley Sambourne, ‘Political Cartoons [Parts I & II]’, The Magazine of Art , 1892, pp. 21–24 and 42–46; M. H. Spielmann, History of ‘Punch’ , London: Cassell & Co., 1895. On Spielmann, see: Julie F. Codell, ‘Marion Harry Spielmann and
Austerity, abundance and race in post-war visual culture
David C. Wall
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1986), p. 191.
T. Crow, The Rise of theSixties:
American and European Art in the Era of Dissent (London:
Lawrence King Publishing, 1996), p. 44.
Crow, The Rise of theSixties , p
’ thesis has been broadly shared
by British cultural historians dealing with the post-1945 era, who have
tended to interpret their subject through the multifaceted prism of the
Cold War, the post-war consensus, austerity and affluence, the rise of
welfarism, the demise of deference, ‘youth culture’, and
angry young men who never had it so good as they swung into thesixties.
In this spiralling array of
Britain’s Director of Propaganda
in enemy countries, Lord Northcliffe chaired thesixty-member Committee
once before he was called away. It was made up of men from the Foreign,
Colonial, India and Meteorological offices, the Admiralty, the Board of
Trade, the Air Ministry, and the dominions. They would have been aware
of lectures given to the Aeronautical Society that summer.
Eighteen months before the War
thesixties, is cadging
his way through India, when he finds himself involved with a swami.
Cassio is searching for an American girl, Susanna, who is an amalgam of
spirituality, sensuality, world weariness and naïveté ,
and she confronts India, with all its baffling contradictions.
‘What is transcendent reality?’, Elinor, Susanna’s
sister, asks the swami. His answer is that reality is not ‘the
Ralph Hotere and ‘New Commonwealth Internationalism’
who took him in for questioning in Menton may not
have insisted he was Algerian, nor brought home to him the
level of prejudice and right-wing nationalism in the south.
TheSixties were a bad time for French colonialism, and the
issue was a hot one in Vence. 28
Kriselle Baker also suggests