Pondichéry as an imperial city in the Mughal state system
extremely small. Of thesixty soldier-workmen available before the Dutch occupation, only thirty-four now remained and probably had help from indigenous workers to build the fortress, houses, magazines, and stores according to the Dutch plan.
Around 1700, Pondichéry remained predominantly an Indian city. A few brick buildings for the French company agents were clustered around the old fortress in no apparent order. Martin occupied perhaps a ‘fine’, but also a small palace
African workers if he was not continually guided and guarded. This reflected dominant ideas that young whites were particularly susceptible to the moral inflictions of poor whiteism. In 1933 Wells suggested that thesixty youths aged twenty-one and under who were employed on relief schemes be dismissed as it was damaging ‘from a psychological point of view’. 87 Close proximity to poor whites would encourage youths to imbibe the work-shy character of their peers on the relief works just as proximity to Africans could lead to a blurring of racial identity. 88
’ thesis has been broadly shared
by British cultural historians dealing with the post-1945 era, who have
tended to interpret their subject through the multifaceted prism of the
Cold War, the post-war consensus, austerity and affluence, the rise of
welfarism, the demise of deference, ‘youth culture’, and
angry young men who never had it so good as they swung into thesixties.
In this spiralling array of
Austerity, abundance and race in post-war visual culture
David C. Wall
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1986), p. 191.
T. Crow, The Rise of theSixties:
American and European Art in the Era of Dissent (London:
Lawrence King Publishing, 1996), p. 44.
Crow, The Rise of theSixties , p
thesixties, is cadging
his way through India, when he finds himself involved with a swami.
Cassio is searching for an American girl, Susanna, who is an amalgam of
spirituality, sensuality, world weariness and naïveté ,
and she confronts India, with all its baffling contradictions.
‘What is transcendent reality?’, Elinor, Susanna’s
sister, asks the swami. His answer is that reality is not ‘the
occupation. None had been active in the colony’s pre-war anti-fascist parties. Such men spent the Japanese occupation in hiding or in gaol.
The Indonesian members came from the privileged classes of the colony. They were medical doctors, lawyers, journalists, educators and party activists. All spoke Dutch. Three of thesixty-two were women. One had obtained her law degree from Leiden University in the Netherlands. 13 The other two female members had held public roles as municipal councillors in the multi-ethnic city administrations set up by the Dutch in Batavia
Britain’s Director of Propaganda
in enemy countries, Lord Northcliffe chaired thesixty-member Committee
once before he was called away. It was made up of men from the Foreign,
Colonial, India and Meteorological offices, the Admiralty, the Board of
Trade, the Air Ministry, and the dominions. They would have been aware
of lectures given to the Aeronautical Society that summer.
Eighteen months before the War
were also locally appointed in the individual colonies so the
extraction of accurate figures is difficult. By 1909, in Ceylon
almost all medical vacancies were filled locally, 77 and in 1911, of thesixty-four listed personnel in the civil medical department, there
was only one identifiable Irishman. In Malaya in 1906 there were
twenty-two qualified medical men from the United Kingdom, 78 of which at
Ralph Hotere and ‘New Commonwealth Internationalism’
who took him in for questioning in Menton may not
have insisted he was Algerian, nor brought home to him the
level of prejudice and right-wing nationalism in the south.
TheSixties were a bad time for French colonialism, and the
issue was a hot one in Vence. 28
Kriselle Baker also suggests
“war” as recognised by international law’. Yet as
Hight acknowledged, in thesixty years since they had ended, the wars,
rich in incidents of human interest, had also significantly influenced
the national psyche: ‘they are a part of the more romantic field
of New Zealand history, and will continue to influence her literature as
they have done her economic and political life’. 50
The legend of the New