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Private organizations and governmentality

, institutions, and professional networks that voluntarily took on this role. In doing so, they fulfilled a role that governments could not, and they acted in the name of vital governmental interests. These groups form what we can call the Transnational Transatlantic. Their efforts were behind the creation and perpetuation of a unique political space, an Atlantic Community, as a guiding sign of consensus with which both sides of the ocean could identify. It was also the nucleus for what many perceived to be the future of global governance 9 – the transatlantic core for

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
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connected in a way that makes them ideal partners’, as Ariane Leendertz writes in her contribution to this volume. Changing paradigms Methodologically the study of transatlantic relations traditionally focused on the political and diplomatic history of the twentieth century. However, with the dawn of the twenty-first century the research area transformed into the more encompassing field of Transatlantic Studies. The latter include political theory as well as a new emphasis on cultural, social, and transnational history. 9

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered

settling of conflicts by the parties and implements the rule of the polity over the partisan individuals. Radicalization: Neither the establishment nor the preservation of autonomous law is bound up with the polity; as law of world society, it comes into being in transnational processes of coevolution between law and its social environment. II. Claim (Menke): Juridical decision-​makers must take the paradoxical basic constellation and the relation of the law to non-​law into account in their legal decisions in order to realize a self-​reflexive application of the

in Law and violence
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different angles, often determined by national war experiences. In Britain, for example, evacuation looms large. Other forms of displacement and separation, child health and welfare reforms, and the fate of children of collaborators or children born of occupation are common themes in war child studies.12 Tara Zahra’s transnational study of children in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War provides a useful analysis of the impact of that war on Europe’s children.13 It joins the growing body of work on child-saving in the twentieth century, with an emphasis on

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
A programme for the teaching of history in the post- national era

teaching that connects the current global experiences of students with past events and provides explanations for the challenges of our time. The most prominent way to reconfigure our historical knowledge and its presentation is offered by the approach of Transnational History. Transnational History emerged since the early 1990s as a counter-model to the paradigm of national history. It is focused on the circulation of ideas, concepts, and practices across various cultures and societies. Rather than seeing history as a function of nation states and only in its national

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered

The TransAtlantic reconsidered brings together established experts from Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies – two fields that are closely connected in their historical and disciplinary development as well as with regard to the geographical area of their interest. Questions of methodology and boundaries of periodization tend to separate these research fields. However, in order to understand the Atlantic World and transatlantic relations today, Atlantic History and Transatlantic Studies should be considered together. The scholars represented in this volume have helped to shape, re-shape, and challenge the narrative(s) of the Atlantic World and can thus (re-)evaluate its conceptual basis in view of historiographical developments and contemporary challenges. This volume thus documents and reflects on the changes within Transatlantic Studies during the last decades. New perspectives on research reconceptualize how we think about the Atlantic World. At a time when many political observers perceive a crisis in transatlantic relations, critical evaluation of past narratives and frameworks will provide an academic foundation to move forward.

vastly expanded its diplomatic corps and its bases in North, Central, and South America. Second, the expansion of Catholic anti-communist groups and ideologies, particularly following the founding in the early 1930s of the Vatican’s transnational Secretariat on Atheism, which produced printed propaganda and travelling exhibitions highlighting the inherently transatlantic ambitions of the Soviet Union. Third, the increased migration of European Catholics to North America, particularly as a result of political unrest in Italy, Germany, and Austria. And fourth, the

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered

decade in which the limits of a state-centered perspective on politics, social, economic, and ecological phenomena became striking, undeniable, and accordingly “real” to people all over the world in manifold ways. 2 From international debt, oil prices, and food crises, to the transnational anti-war movement and the rise of the debate on “limits to growth,” at the beginning of

in The NGO CARE and food aid From America, 1945–80
"On the political passions in Europe and America and their implications for Transatlantic History"

– this time to create an awareness of ‘entanglement’ (the term now so prevalent for transnational history; the French equivalent is histoires croisées ) in a wider framework that will embed the Atlantic arena within global developments. I hope to engage these propositions by following a political theme that should seem urgent in light of political violence and even the recent electoral results in Europe and the United States: the passions of politics. Consider as an introduction a different evocation of the Atlantic. Almost a century ago William

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
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The evolution of a subject

Nicholas Canny writes on the evolution of Atlantic History from the Cold War era onward. From the 1960s historians such as Jack P. Greene and Edmund S. Morgan challenged Robert Palmer’s Liberal-consensus narrative of the Democratic Revolutions in the Atlantic World. With more research on the Black Atlantic it became clear that the rise of an Atlantic Community had heavily relied on slavery and violence. Economic history further strengthened insights into how the Atlantic empires evolved out of the exploitation of Africans and indigenous peoples in the Americas. Moreover, from the mid-1990s the concept of multiple Atlantics made Atlantic History more transnational in its scope.

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered