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Casper Sylvest

public sphere in Victorian politics, which was later to reach its pinnacle in the Gladstonian crusades.19 And, as we shall see, the primary preachers of this gospel of free trade, Cobden and John Bright (1811–1889), became important icons of liberal internationalist ideology. 29 The roots of liberal internationalism Other elements of popular politics were, however, less easy to square with core liberal values. For example, popular radicalism was often more bent on political equality and democracy than were intellectual or Westminster liberals (or parliamentary

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Abstract only
Casper Sylvest

in this field is mountainous and growing. Some of the best studies include Stefan Collini, Liberalism and Sociology (Cambridge, 1979); Stefan Collini, Public Moralists (Oxford, 1991); Stefan Collini, Donald Winch and J. W. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics (Cambridge, 1983); Michael Freeden, The New Liberalism (Oxford, 1978); Michael Freeden, Liberalism Divided (Oxford, 1985); Lawrence Goldman, Science, Reform, and Politics in Victorian Britain (Cambridge, 2002); Christopher T. Harvie, The Lights of Liberalism (London, 1976); H. S. Jones, Victorian Political

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
David Thackeray

Victorian politics has been transformed by a variety of studies of local politics, many of them influenced by the ‘New Political History’ (NPH). Scholars have analysed how individual politicians developed support bases through appeals founded on gender, class and imperial patriotism.24 In much of this literature the support base of the Conservative Party in the localities appears to have owed little to the rhetoric and policies of the national party leadership. During the 1870s and 1880s populist Tory politicians created a social culture which united working- and middle

in Conservatism for the democratic age
Rob Manwaring

, culminating in a statewide strategic plan: Bracks’s aim was to create a more ‘vibrant democracy’ in Victoria (Department of Premier and Cabinet 2005, p. 20). The Bracks minority government surprisingly took office in November 1999, having not been expected to defeat Jeff Kennett’s Liberal ­government. Kennett had governed Victoria from 1992 to 1999 and dominated Victorian politics during this period, his government gaining a reputation as one of the most ‘actively reformist’ state governments by pursuing a vigorous neoliberal agenda. When Kennett took office in 1992, his

in The search for democratic renewal
Rob Manwaring

service, with VEESAC attempting initially to challenge public sector performance in meeting the broad GVT goals. This was met with resistance. The council only had credibility with the Department of Premier and Cabinet and for as long as Bracks chaired the main board meetings. A noteworthy experiment in governance (a defining characteristic of the NSD), VEESAC was a powerful symbol of an attempt to build a more inclusive era in Victorian politics. Yet, for all its symbolic value, it is interesting to note how relatively quickly VEESAC was dissolved. Indicators of

in The search for democratic renewal
A resource for a journey of hope?
Stephen Yeo

in 1859 of Samuel Smiles’ Self Help,  modern edition P. W. Sinnema, ed., (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008). 31 S. Collini, ‘The Idea of Character in Victorian Political Thought’, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 35 (1908), pp. 29–50. 32 Holyoake, Jubilee History, Derby, p. 33. 33 G. J. Holyoake, Sixty Years of an Agitator’s Life, 2 vols in 1 (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1906), vol. 2, p. 181. 34 McCabe, Life and Letters, vol. 2, p. 164. 35 Holyoake, Self-Help by the People, p. 135. 36 Ibid., pp. 135, 113. 37 Holyoake, Co

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Casper Sylvest

constitution and action of government are concerned, as distinct from what is or has been’, he also subjected the political conclusions reached by utilitarianism to careful analysis in order to demonstrate that they were roughly equivalent to the views held by the educated elite.98 In a sense, therefore, the method of The Methods was used to vindicate utilitarianism in Victorian political and intellectual life (even if the book left a nagging doubt: was utilitarianism believed because it was true, or vice versa?). In contrast, The Development of European Polity was basically

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Casper Sylvest

in Victorian intellectual life is increasingly being appreciated. See for example H. S. Jones, ‘The idea of the national in Victorian political thought’, European Journal of Political Theory, 5 (2006), 12–21. The classic study is Duncan Forbes, The Liberal Anglican Idea of History (Cambridge, 1952). See also the discussion in John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, fifth edition, 2 vols (London, 1862 [1843]), II, book 6, ch. 11 (‘Additional elucidations of the science of history’). E. H. Carr, What Is History?, second edition (London, 1987

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Casper Sylvest

probability of an improved observance of international justice’ was simply omitted (without any explanation) by the editor, Sheldon Amos. 45 On Maine and colonial law, see Sandra den Otter, ‘“A legislating empire”: Victorian political theorists, codes of law, and empire’, and Karuna Mantena, ‘The crisis of liberal imperialism’, both in Bell, Victorian Visions, 89–112 and 113–35, respectively. 46 Stefan Collini, Donald Winch and J. W. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics (Cambridge, 1983), p. 210; and, more generally, Alan Diamond (ed.), The Victorian Achievement of

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930