public sphere in Victorianpolitics, which was later to reach
its pinnacle in the Gladstonian crusades.19 And, as we shall see, the
primary preachers of this gospel of free trade, Cobden and John Bright
(1811–1889), became important icons of liberal internationalist ideology.
The roots of liberal internationalism
Other elements of popular politics were, however, less easy to square
with core liberal values. For example, popular radicalism was often
more bent on political equality and democracy than were intellectual
or Westminster liberals (or parliamentary
in this field is mountainous and growing. Some of the best
studies include Stefan Collini, Liberalism and Sociology (Cambridge, 1979);
Stefan Collini, Public Moralists (Oxford, 1991); Stefan Collini, Donald Winch
and J. W. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics (Cambridge, 1983); Michael
Freeden, The New Liberalism (Oxford, 1978); Michael Freeden, Liberalism
Divided (Oxford, 1985); Lawrence Goldman, Science, Reform, and Politics
in Victorian Britain (Cambridge, 2002); Christopher T. Harvie, The Lights of
Liberalism (London, 1976); H. S. Jones, VictorianPolitical
Victorianpolitics has been transformed
by a variety of studies of local politics, many of them influenced by the
‘New Political History’ (NPH). Scholars have analysed how individual
politicians developed support bases through appeals founded on gender,
class and imperial patriotism.24 In much of this literature the support base
of the Conservative Party in the localities appears to have owed little to
the rhetoric and policies of the national party leadership. During the
1870s and 1880s populist Tory politicians created a social culture which
united working- and middle
in a statewide strategic plan: Bracks’s aim was to create a more ‘vibrant
democracy’ in Victoria (Department of Premier and Cabinet 2005,
The Bracks minority government surprisingly took office in November
1999, having not been expected to defeat Jeff Kennett’s Liberal
government. Kennett had governed Victoria from 1992 to 1999 and
dominated Victorianpolitics during this period, his government gaining
a reputation as one of the most ‘actively reformist’ state governments
by pursuing a vigorous neoliberal agenda. When Kennett took office
in 1992, his
service, with VEESAC attempting initially to challenge public sector
performance in meeting the broad GVT goals. This was met with resistance. The council only had credibility with the Department of Premier
and Cabinet and for as long as Bracks chaired the main board meetings.
A noteworthy experiment in governance (a defining characteristic of the
NSD), VEESAC was a powerful symbol of an attempt to build a more
inclusive era in Victorianpolitics. Yet, for all its symbolic value, it is
interesting to note how relatively quickly VEESAC was dissolved.
in 1859 of Samuel Smiles’
Self Help, modern edition P. W. Sinnema, ed., (Oxford: Oxford University
31 S. Collini, ‘The Idea of Character in VictorianPolitical Thought’, in Transactions
of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 35 (1908), pp. 29–50.
32 Holyoake, Jubilee History, Derby, p. 33.
33 G. J. Holyoake, Sixty Years of an Agitator’s Life, 2 vols in 1 (London: T. Fisher
Unwin, 1906), vol. 2, p. 181.
34 McCabe, Life and Letters, vol. 2, p. 164.
35 Holyoake, Self-Help by the People, p. 135.
36 Ibid., pp. 135, 113.
37 Holyoake, Co
constitution and action of government are concerned, as distinct from what
is or has been’, he also subjected the political conclusions reached by
utilitarianism to careful analysis in order to demonstrate that they
were roughly equivalent to the views held by the educated elite.98 In
a sense, therefore, the method of The Methods was used to vindicate
utilitarianism in Victorianpolitical and intellectual life (even if the
book left a nagging doubt: was utilitarianism believed because it was
true, or vice versa?). In contrast, The Development of European Polity
in Victorian intellectual life is increasingly being appreciated. See for example H. S. Jones, ‘The
idea of the national in Victorianpolitical thought’, European Journal of Political Theory, 5 (2006), 12–21. The classic study is Duncan Forbes, The Liberal
Anglican Idea of History (Cambridge, 1952).
See also the discussion in John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative
and Inductive, fifth edition, 2 vols (London, 1862 ), II, book 6, ch. 11
(‘Additional elucidations of the science of history’).
E. H. Carr, What Is History?, second edition (London, 1987
probability of an
improved observance of international justice’ was simply omitted (without any
explanation) by the editor, Sheldon Amos.
45 On Maine and colonial law, see Sandra den Otter, ‘“A legislating empire”:
Victorianpolitical theorists, codes of law, and empire’, and Karuna Mantena,
‘The crisis of liberal imperialism’, both in Bell, Victorian Visions, 89–112 and
46 Stefan Collini, Donald Winch and J. W. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics
(Cambridge, 1983), p. 210; and, more generally, Alan Diamond (ed.), The
Victorian Achievement of