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Daniel Anlezark

stone pillar and almost overwhelms the pagan cannibals of Mermedonia. Despite their differences, all the poems share an interest in two themes, which emerge from the biblical story of the Flood and its theological interpretation: covenant and apocalypse. Genesis A Scholars of Old English poetry generally agree that Genesis A is an early poem, perhaps written as early as the

in Water and fire
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The myth of the Flood in Anglo-Saxon England
Author: Daniel Anlezark

The story of the Flood, inherited by the Anglo-Saxons during their conversion to Christianity, was transformed by them into a vital myth through which they interpreted the whole of history and their place in it. The dual character of the myth, with the opposition between threatened destruction and hope of renewal, presented commentators with a potent historical metaphor, which they exploited in their own changing historical circumstance. This book explores the use of this metaphor in the writings of the Anglo-Saxons. It is the integration of a well-known biblical story into the historical and cultural self-definition of a group of people converted to Christianity and its worldview. The Flood in the Bible is clearly a punishment, though the sin is not so well defined. This forms part of a historical pattern of sin and punishment extending back to Eden, and progressed to the sin and exile of Cain. For Bede the historian, the Flood was a key event in the earlier history of the world; for Bede the theologian, the Flood was an event replete with mystical significance. In Exodus and Andreas all the poems share an interest in two themes, which emerge from the biblical story of the Flood and its theological interpretation: covenant and apocalypse. Noah is the 'one father' not only of Israel, but of the whole human race, and his introduction widens the concept of 'inheritance' in the Exodus. The book concludes with a detailed discussion of the significance of the Flood myth in Beowulf.

The abjection of the Middle Ages
Thomas A. Prendergast and Stephanie Trigg

Vacca, showing how quickly contemporary urban life could collapse in the manner of a medieval apocalypse. 20 Tuchman comments that the fourteenth century had not been often studied because it did not seem to fit the pattern of human progress so beloved of much historiography, but ‘after the experience of the terrible twentieth century, we have greater fellow-feeling for a distraught age whose rules were

in Affective medievalism
Sylvie Joye

of Christian society. In this perspective, abduction appeared as a counter-model of marriage liable to bring down the social pyramid that the Carolingian kings were attempting to construct. It is this that justifies the tone of catastrophe, indeed apocalypse, which can be found in Hincmar’s treatise. Father and emperor were two people who could not be attacked and whose legitimacy could not be brought into question (Stuart Airlie, following Janet Nelson, has insisted on the fact that the Carolingians succeeded in having themselves accepted

in Hincmar of Rheims
James Naus

. Gardner, ‘The Capetian Presence in Berry as a Consequence of the First Crusade’, in Autour de la Première Croisade: Actes du colloque de la Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East (Clermont-Ferrand, 22–25 juin 1995) , ed. Michel Balard (Paris, 1996), pp. 71–81 (pp. 75–6). 82 Jay Rubenstein, Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse (New York, 2011), p. 21. 83 For conceptualization of this idea see Vincent Ryan, ‘Richard I and the Early Evolution of the Fourth Crusade’, in The

in Constructing kingship
Stephen Penn

Wyclif devoted many years of his life to the intensive study of scripture, beginning formally with exegetical lectures that survive as a sequence of postils (probably written between 1371 and 1376), now collectively known as Postils on the Whole of the Bible, a unique and extensive commentary that won Wyclif considerable respect as an exegete. In these, we witness his meticulous defence of the authority of scripture, and of the literal veracity of all of its parts. This is developed further in On the Truth of Holy Scripture (1377–78), Wyclif’s definitive guide to the interpretation of the Bible. It is in the first book of this latter treatise that he argues that scripture is metaphysically the Book of Life of which we read in St John’s Apocalypse. This book and the truths inscribed within it, he suggests here, are scripture in the truest sense, unlike the material codices that are so often taken to be the scriptural text by contemporary scholars. This conception of the scripture served Wyclif well in his famous claim that no part of scripture could literally be false. It enabled him to challenge the linguistic sophistry which he felt inevitably arose when the nature of the scriptural text was narrowly equated with inscriptions on manuscript pages.

in John Wyclif
Stephen Penn

multiplicity of ways. 18 Here ends the Treatise on the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit 42 On the Loosing of Satan On the Loosing of Satan. Latin text: Polemical Works , vol. 2, pp. 391–400. This treatise focuses on a short passage in the Book of Apocalypse in which Satan in bound and cast into an abyss for one thousand years. Wyclif argues that from the time of Christ’s ascension until the present day Satan has been loosed from the abyss in a

in John Wyclif
Daniel Anlezark

-Saxon invention of a fourth son born in the ark would rest on some Christian tradition, however unorthodox. Thomas Hill has suggested that the ark-born son has his origin in the apocryphal fourth son of Noah found in the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, a work found in Latin and Greek versions. 58 Hill notes that the Anglo-Saxons knew the Pseudo-Methodian Apocalypse , as it is

in Water and fire
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Bede on the Flood
Daniel Anlezark

Apocalypse ( c .703–9), exploits this way of reading. 22 Bede’s discussion of the Flood, as a part of his mature work, contains many extended mystical passages. For Bede, commentary on scripture was not a form of speculative theology, but literary criticism, and the reader was charged with understanding the full meaning of the text by practising criticism. 23 Bede’s employment of biblical examples in

in Water and fire
Abstract only
Stephen Penn

–78), Wyclif’s definitive guide to the interpretation of the Bible. It is in the first book of this latter treatise that he argues that scripture is metaphysically the Book of Life of which we read in St John’s Apocalypse. This book and the truths inscribed within it, he suggests here, are scripture in the truest sense ( 7i ), unlike the material codices that are so often taken to be the scriptural text by contemporary scholars. This conception of the scripture served Wyclif well in his famous claim that no part of scripture could literally be false ( 10 ). It enabled him to

in John Wyclif