victories of good over evil. The dragon represents sin, the Spanish Armada, the
beast of the Apocalypse; when Redcrosse defeats the dragon, he is in effect
restoring Eden. Redcrosse is then deemed worthy of union with Una. Studying the
early modern catechism helped to establish typology as a system for reading the
Bible, but, as had been true of the medieval allegorical tradition, its
approach to making cross-references and to reading symbolically also influenced
Brailowsky, ‘Du détournement au délire interprétatif: les figures de l’excès dans Julius Caesar de Shakespeare’, Actes des congrès de la Société française Shakespeare , 25 (2007), 3–23.
Yan Brailowsky, ‘“Let me Prophesy”: Apocalypse et inspiration prophétique dans Richard II de Shakespeare’, in Michel Naumann and Dominique Daniel (eds), L’Autre: Journée d’étude sur les Auteurs et Sujets des Concours 2006 , GRAAT (Tours: Presses
dimension to the shows it hosts.
Performing the supernatural sets the monument into motion in various ways. In the now legendary ghost scene of Chéreau's Hamlet , the late king made a grand entrance riding a galloping horse. The striking image, reminiscent of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Brueghel,
combined with a powerful sound effect as the steed's swift hooves drummed on the wooden platform. Right from the opening, through the mediation of the duplicated wall
round’) Donne paints the picture of apocalypse like a fire and brimstone sermon detailing the conditions of the dead, but the argument takes a turn from line 9, ‘But let them sleep, Lord, and me mourn a space’. It is a Ramist argument of the dissimilar – unlike others, the poet resolves to repent now. Similarly, in Holy Sonnet 6 (‘Death be not proud’) Donne employs a figure of diminution to present Death as powerless as opposed to received opinion: ‘Thou’rt slave to fate, chance, kings, and desperate men, / And dost with poison, war, and sickness dwell.’ The
The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure, Twelfth Night
provided by ‘Iugement temporel ... vn certain terme’ (temporal judgement for a certain time) in purgatory, until it burns away ‘toutes noz macules’ (all our stains), since ‘rien de soüillé n’entrera en Paradis’ (nothing unclean will enter into Paradise). 111 The image of Satan chained in Apocalypse 22 refers to our liberation from this ‘prison’; the image is insisted on:
Ceste prison est le feu de Purgatoire, duquel nous ne pouuons pas tousiours estre retenus: mais cela se faict seulement pour vn temps.
(This prison is the fire of Purgatory, in which we cannot
Aesthetics of contingency provides an important reconsideration of seventeenth-century literature in light of new understandings of the English past. Emphasising the contingency of the political in revolutionary England and its extended aftermath, Matthew Augustine challenges prevailing literary histories plotted according to structural conflicts and teleological narrative. In their place, he offers an innovative account of imaginative and polemical writing, in an effort to view later seventeenth-century literature on its own terms: without certainty about the future, or indeed the recent past. In hewing to this premise, the familiar outline of the period – with red lines drawn at 1642, 1660, or 1688 – becomes suggestively blurred. For all of Milton’s prophetic gestures, for all of Dryden’s presumption to speak for, to epitomise his Age, writing from the later decades of the seventeenth century remained supremely responsive to uncertainty, to the tremors of civil conflict and to the enduring crises and contradictions of Stuart governance. A study of major writings from the Personal Rule to the Glorious Revolution and beyond, this book also re-examines the material conditions of literature in this age. By carefully deciphering the multi-layered forces at work in acts of writing and reception, and with due consideration for the forms in which texts were cast, this book explores the complex nature of making meaning in and making meaning out of later Stuart England.
Chronology: Productions of Shakespeare plays by the Citizens’ Theatre Company, 1970–2001
Willy Maley and Andrew Murphy
2 setting. 1988–89 Richard III September/October
1988. Director, Jon Pope; Designer, Kathy Strachan.
On–stage studio theatre season – bare, black
production – Ciaran Hinds as Richard III. 1989–90 Macbeth October 1989. Director,
Jon Pope; Designer, Stewart Laing. Post-apocalypse
setting. 1993–94 Romeo and Juliet , October 1993
Dynastic policy and colonial expansion in revenge tragedy
The Spanish Tragedy seems at
times a play more about Italian city-states and their scheming, vengeful
dukes than about Habsburg Spain. Frank Ardolino, who in Apocalypse
and Armada has read it as an Armada play depicting Spain as both
Babel and Babylon, has voiced the common feeling that Italy lurks behind
the Spanish court of Kyd’s tragedy: ‘In The Spanish
, F. R. , Apocalypse and Armada in Kyd’s Spanish
Tragedy ( Kirksville : Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, Northeast Missouri
State University , 1995 ).
Carman , G. , ‘ Review of Frank Ardolino. Apocalypse and Armada in
Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy ’, Renaissance Quarterly 50 : 2 ( 1997 ): 617–18 .
Nass , B. , ‘ Review of Ardolino, Frank R. Apocalypse and Armada in Kyd’s
playlet, which ostensibly is performed to celebrate the
marriage between Balthazar and Bel-imperia, alludes to the fateful
marriage between Henry of Navarre and Margaret of Valois in Paris on St
Bartholomew’s Day in 1572, when Huguenots were massacred by
Catholic conspirators. In effect, Hieronimo’s revenge playlet
reverses the earlier historical event. Finally, in Apocalypse and