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. Many also became involved in nationalism, both ­constitutional and republican.29 Still, we know little about Irish women’s religious lives. In the ­revision of his seminal Priests and People in Pre-Famine Ireland (1984), Sean Connolly admits he did not ‘properly addres[s]’ gender or women’s experiences in his study of popular religion. In 2000, he called for more research, arguing that revisionist readings of sources and the opening of new archival depositories ‘will eventually make it possible to fill this gap in our knowledge’.30 Irish Women and the Creation of

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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available in provincial archives, evidence rather cavalierly dismissed by Ozouf as being nothing more than ‘minutes of meetings, often inelegant, invariably dull’.16 The first hurdle to be overcome for any historian attempting to evaluate the genuine popular experience of a particular phase or aspect of the Revolution is the availability of reliable evidence, particularly when the area of inquiry is outside the capital and away from the narrow confines of the Convention and its Committees. There is always a paucity of reliable evidence of the state of public opinion

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
The search for a republican morality

In Year 2 of the Revolution (1794) Robespierre, seeking to establish a new deist national morality created the Festival of the Supreme Being celebrated on 20 Prairial Year 2 (8 June 1794). This book begins by tracing the progress in the development of Robespierre’s thinking on the importance of the problem which the lack of any acceptable national moral system through the early years of the Revolution had created, his vision of a new attitude towards religion and morality, and why he chose a Revolutionary Festival to launch his idea. It focusses on the importance of the Festival by showing that it was not only a major event in Paris, with a huge man-made mountain on the Champ de Mars; it was also celebrated in great depth in almost every city, town and village throughout France. It seeks to redefine the importance of the Festival in the history of the Revolution, not, as historians have traditionally dismissed it, merely as the performance of a sterile and compulsory political duty, but on the contrary, as a massively popular national event. The author uses source material from national and local archives describing the celebrations as well as the reaction to the event and its importance by contemporary commentators. This is the first book since the 1980s and the only work in English to focus on this Festival and to redefine its importance in the development of the Revolution.

Prophecy and religious experience in early eighteenth-century England

This book examines the nature and significance of religious enthusiasm in early Enlightenment England. In the early modern period, the term ‘enthusiasm’ was a smear word used to discredit the dissenters of the radical Reformation as dangerous religious fanatics. In England, the term gained prominence from the Civil War period and throughout the eighteenth century. Anglican ministers and the proponents of the Enlightenment used it more widely against Paracelsian chemists, experimental philosophers, religious dissenters and divines, astrologers or anyone claiming superior knowledge. As a result, our understanding of enthusiasm is largely influenced by the hostile discourse of Augustan moralist and early Enlighteners. But who exactly were these enthusiasts? What did they believe in, how did they operate as a community and what impact did they have on their contemporaries? This book aims to answer these questions by concentrating on the notorious case of the French Prophets. It demonstrates how the understanding of enthusiasm evolved around 1700, designating anything from a religious fanaticism to a social epidemic and even a bodily disease. It offers the first comprehensive approach to enthusiasm, looking at this multifarious issue from a successively social, religious, cultural, political and medical perspective. Based on extensive archival research, it sheds new light on the reality of enthusiasm away from the hostility of Enlightenment discourse.

A political history

This exploration of one of the most concentrated immigrant communities in Britain combines a new narrative history, a theoretical analysis of the evolving relationship between progressive left politics and ethnic minorities, and a critique of political multiculturalism. Its central concern is the perennial question of how to propagate an effective radical politics in a multicultural society: how to promote greater equality that benefits both ethnic minorities and the wider population, and why so little has been achieved. It charts how the Bengali Muslims in London’s East End have responded to the pulls of class, ethnicity and religion; and how these have been differently reinforced by wider political movements. Drawing on extensive recorded interviews, ethnographic observation, and long sorties into the local archives, it recounts and analyses the experiences of many of those who took part in over six decades of political history that range over secular nationalism, trade unionism, black radicalism, mainstream local politics, Islamism, and the rise and fall of the Respect Coalition. Through this Bengali case study and examples from wider immigrant politics, it traces the development and adoption of the concepts of popular frontism and revolutionary stages theory and of the identity politics that these ideas made possible. It demonstrates how these theories and tactics have cut across class-based organisation and acted as an impediment to tackling cross-cultural inequality; and it argues instead for a left alternative that addresses fundamental socio-economic divisions.

Living spirituality

Between 1598 and 1800, an estimated 3, 271 Catholic women left England to enter convents on the Continent. This study focuses more particularly upon those who became Benedictines in the seventeenth century, choosing exile in order to pursue their vocation for an enclosed life. Through the study of a wide variety of original manuscripts, including chronicles, death notices, clerical instructions, texts of spiritual guidance, but also the nuns’ own collections of notes, this book highlights the tensions between the contemplative ideal and the nuns’ personal experiences. Its first four chapters adopt a traditional historical approach to illustrate the tensions between theory and practice in the ideal of being dead to the world. They offer a prosopographical study of Benedictine convents in exile, and show how those houses were both cut-off and enclosed yet very much in touch with the religious and political developments at home. The next fur chapters propose a different point of entry into the history of nuns, with a study of emotions and the senses in the cloister, delving into the textual analysis of the nuns’ personal and communal documents to explore aspect of a lived spirituality, when the body, which so often hindered the spirit, at times enabled spiritual experience.

Education, migration and Catholicism in early modern Europe

English college at Douai appeared from the pen of Charles Dodds as early as 1713, the recovery of the history of the abroad colleges occurred largely from the later nineteenth century.101 In this respect, the parallels between the colleges are remarkable. The Chambers_O’Connor_Printer.indd 15 08/09/2017 09:53 16 COLLEGE COMMUNITIES ABROAD publication of material from college archives began in earnest from the 1870s, with the appearance of Thomas Knox’s The First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay in 1878, accompanied by a lengthy ‘Historical

in College communities abroad

based on a vaguely theistic Great Being, and the recognition of the importance of the immortality of the human soul, stood a real chance of being greeted positively throughout the celebrations outside paris 79 the nation, following as they did the bleakness of a period which had only offered the hopelessness of a series of negative values such as arid de-Christianisation, Atheism or an unapproachable Goddess of Reason. The documents which flooded into Paris from the provinces after the proclamation of 18 Floréal, as well as the evidence in local archives, are a

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being

5 Scholarship, politics and the ‘golden age’ of research A generation after Michaud’s death, the creation of an academic society devoted to crusade studies, La Société de l’Orient Latin, bore witness to a transformation of the subject. Founded by the wealthy gentleman scholar Paul Riant (1835–88), the Society produced two initial volumes of research materials, the Archives de l’Orient Latin, in 1881 and 1884 as well as later sponsoring publication of texts and producing a regular if short-lived Revue de l’Orient Latin (12 volumes, 1893–1911). Contributors to

in The Debate on the Crusades

the study of the genuine public response to the Festival which this local documentation allows draws inescapably to a new evaluation of the importance of the great event of 20 Prairial in the nation as a whole. The documentation available in provincial archives and other sources on the national response to Robespierre’s proposal for a new form of national worship offers this fresh insight, primarily because of the special characteristics which set the Festival of the Supreme Being apart from any other Revolutionary Festival. As many commentators have argued, all

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being