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enter the European cultural bloodstream. Representations came in many forms, from published travelogues and the printed illustrations that accompanied them to individual images and archival accounts of personal experiences in the landscape. Published works are inflected by the expectations of the reading audience to whom they are directed. Archives, on the other hand, are often plumbed to their depths for what

in Representing Africa
Decolonisation, Globalisation, and International Responsibility

This book is about the impact of decolonisation on British society in the 1960s. It moves away from the traditional focus on cultural, media, and governmental archives to analyse public agency and civic forms of engagement with the declining empire. Through a close examination of middle-class associational life it broadens our understanding of who had a stake in decolonisation while also revealing the optimism and enthusiasm with which members of the British public developed visions for a post-imperial global role. By studying a wide range of associational organisations this book shows that globalisation and decolonisation opened up new opportunities for international engagement for middle-aged members of middle-class society. In the 1960s for many participants in associational life it became a civic duty to engage, understand, and intervene to help the shrinking world in which they lived. This book uncovers how associations and organisations acted on this sense of duty, developing projects that promoted friendship and hospitality as the foundations of world peace, visions for secular and religious forms of humanitarianism that encouraged relationships of both sympathy and solidarity with those in the global South, and plans to increase international understanding through educative activities. This book will be useful to scholars of modern British history, particularly those with interests in empire, internationalism, and civil society. The book is also designed to be accessible to undergraduates studying these areas.

Open Access (free)
Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940

in colonial Africa. 7 This is due in part to early historians of medicine in Uganda, admittedly some themselves missionaries, who have stressed the debt of the colonial administration to the pioneer medical work and research started by Albert Ruskin Cook. 8 It also stems from the extensive collection of records deposited by the CMS in archives at the University of Birmingham (UK), the Wellcome

in Beyond the state
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Landscape, exploration and empire in southern Africa, 1780–1870

Southern Africa played a varied but vital role in Britain's maritime and imperial stories. The region was one of the most intricate pieces in the British imperial strategic jigsaw, and representations of southern African landscape and maritime spaces reflect its multifaceted position. This book examines the ways in which British travellers, explorers and artists viewed southern Africa in a period of evolving and expanding British interest in the region. Cape Town occupied in the visual and cultural understanding of British people in the 1760s. It is a representation of southern Africa. The book presents a study that examines and contextualises such representations of southern African landscapes, seascapes and settlements by British officials, travellers and artists. It interrogates how and why these descriptions and depictions came about, as well as the role they played in the British imagining and understanding of southern African spaces. The focus is on a period of evolving and expanding British interest and intervention in southern Africa, its impact on peoples and their environs, and the expression in contemporary landscape and seascape representation. British formal control at the Cape of Good Hope brought European aesthetic frameworks to bear on the viewing of landscapes. Exploration and imperialism were defining features of the British experience in southern Africa. Drawing on a wide range of archival sources, contemporary travelogues and visual images, the book posits landscape as a useful prism through which to view changing British attitudes towards Africa.

Cartoons and British imperialism during the Attlee Labour government

, accessed 14 November 2014; Virginia Hewitt, ‘Britannia ( fl. 1st–21st cent.)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, online edition, May 2012, at: www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/68196 , accessed 14 November 2014. 10 Leslie Gilbert Illingworth, Untitled, Daily Mail , 27 August 1945, ILW0967, British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent

in Comic empires
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individuals back across the frontier or send them for trial in Mandalay. The case of Akhtar Muhammed and similar instances of consular practice suggest that law as applied by consuls was important for British authority in the seemingly remote western frontiers of China. The nature of these legal powers transcended what we think of as the boundaries between different jurisdictions of the British Empire. These legal roles of the consuls and their connection to colonial authority have remained hidden in archival documents. This book therefore illuminates these activities of

in Law across imperial borders

. Notes 1 Many images from this chapter come from the archives of the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. I therefore wish to express my gratitude to Jidong Yang, Hsiao-ting Lin, and Carol Leadenham for their invaluable help at Stanford. I am also indebted to Xiaodong He for help with the Japanese translations, and to Whitney Chandler for advice on writing this chapter

in Comic empires
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Mass photography, monarchy and the making of colonial subjects

Your Freek 1 This album, now in a Dutch archive, was compiled as a tribute on the birth of Irene, the second daughter of Crown Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard, on 5 August 1939. Being small, the album was eminently portable, and Freek and Rick, the two Dutch-speaking photographer friends, were able to send it to a third person. The ‘Irene album’, as I shall call it here, might be conceived as

in Photographic subjects
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state

first to be unified in 1932, followed in 1934 by the Colonial Medical Service. By 1949 there were twenty branches of the Colonial Service representing, among other areas, education, law, nursing, policing, research and forestry. Although this marked the point of formal rationalisation, archives and source materials reveal that in official and public understandings there had been regionally based

in Beyond the state
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

In East Africa, Indian Assistant Surgeons and SASs were present in the medical department as an obvious force soon after its inception. Indians were part of the medical provision offered by the Uganda Railways and then, later, part of the colonial medical department, which was founded in 1895. Although official records from this period are scant, four Indian medical staff are named in early archive

in Beyond the state