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flavour. Rituals such as the Quarant’ Ore, devotions to the Virgin Mary, the renewal of baptismal vows, frequent communion and jubilant processions with lights and banners were the outward signs of Catholicism and reflected continental influences that were not favoured by ‘Old Catholics’. Men like Henry Manning, John Henry Newman and W.G. Ward, converts from the Anglican Church, enhanced the intellectual capital of English Roman Catholics, whose theological rigour was considered defunct and derelict.46 While these are broad categorisations, they are requisite to

in Contested identities

, declared that: The middle classes, till now almost neglected in England, form the mass and staple of our society, are the ‘higher class’ of our great congregations out of the capital, have to provide us with our priesthood, our confraternities, and our working religious.129 Middle- and upper-class young women who attended boarding schools were considered suitable candidates for religious life.130 126 Walsh, 2002, p. 172. 127 RLR: Mother Imelda, ‘Sevenoaks’. 128 The Life of Madame de Bonnault d’Houët: Foundress of the Society of the Faithful Companions of Jesus (Dublin

in Contested identities
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-class women’s experiences and power and has noted that ‘upper middle-class women cooperated and participated with men to achieve control managing the cultural capital that secured their own pre-eminence and authority in contrast to both the working class and the lower-middle classes’.77 This aspect of power pertained to religious communities as well, and it was most clearly seen in congregations with a lay-choir dichotomy. Choir sisters used their status and their class to uphold their power in the congregation. Their dominance was reflected in the ways in which the lay

in Contested identities
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Religious sisters and nuns, known collectively as women religious, 1 have always operated in a liminal place in church and popular culture. Nuns for centuries maintained a spiritual capital that gave them a special role in the life of the Catholic Church. Though some individual abbesses may have wielded significant power, women religious were never canonically members of the clergy. They had, however, in popular understanding, a ‘higher calling’. 2 Through the institutions they managed, female religious had enormous influence in shaping generations of

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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Post-war modernity and religious vocations

, given her cohort, they often reference the excitement of the foreign missions, a theme not mentioned often in my interviews. She also describes parental responses as ‘ambiguous’ but mentions the symbolic capital of having a daughter in religious life in Ireland. McKenna, Made Holy , pp. 55–71. 66 Anonymised interview. According to Tranter, Irish parents were likely to protest when their daughters were sent to faraway missions to North America and Australia. Janice Tranter , ‘ The Irish Dimension of an Australian Religious Sisterhood: The Sisters of Saint

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Changing ministries

visible than when they had managed large-scale institutions. 135 In the process they went from conversion and salvation to creating active, informed citizens; and whether in foreign missions like Peru or in Catholic schoolrooms, they sought to build ‘social capital’: networks, confidence, skills and knowledge. Conclusion Journalist George Scott, in his 1967 report on ‘R.C.s’ explained that ‘Roman Catholics, as a community, are only just starting to catch up with the idea of social action’. 136 By the 1970s and 1980s, despite diminishing numbers women religious

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

be governed capitally under the one that is notionally God. 37 The relationship between priest and monarch i) On the Office of the King , ch. 6 (extract). Latin text: De Officio Regis , pp. 137–44. Wyclif here offers a focused examination of the relationship between regal and ecclesiastical power. In what is presented as a response to a hypothetical objection raised against him, he challenges the opinion, articulated in the second and the third parts of the

in John Wyclif